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A hamlet between the towns of Tsihombe and Ambovombe, in the most drought-stricken area in southern Madagascar. Most families in the region have resorted to eating wild fruits and tree leaves. Courtesy of Jeanluc Siblot hide caption

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Courtesy of Jeanluc Siblot

The orchids that produce vanilla beans have no natural pollinators in Madagascar; the plant must be pollinated by hand — a labor-intensive process with little margin for error. Courtesy of Madécasse hide caption

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Courtesy of Madécasse

A greater bamboo lemur in Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar, in 2000. Scientists say their numbers have dwindled due to slash-and-burn agriculture and climate change, which have reduced the amount of fresh bamboo available to them. Haroldo Castro/Conservation International/AP hide caption

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Haroldo Castro/Conservation International/AP

Askinosie buys beans directly from small farmers. The goal: better quality control, and more cash to the growers. Bob Linder/Courtesy of Askinosie Chocolate hide caption

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Bob Linder/Courtesy of Askinosie Chocolate

A man prepares an aye-aye, a rare type of lemur found only on the island of Madagascar, for dinner. These primates are an important source of iron and protein despite being critically endangered. Christopher Golden hide caption

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Christopher Golden