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The size of the brain of a chimpanzee (right) is considerably smaller than that of a human brain. Probably multiple stretches of DNA help determine that, geneticists say. Science Photo Library/Corbis hide caption

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Science Photo Library/Corbis

Just A Bit Of DNA Helps Explain Humans' Big Brains

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Surgeons at Methodist University Hospital in Memphis prepare to transplant a liver in 2010. Karen Pulfer Focht/The Commercial Appeal/Landov hide caption

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Karen Pulfer Focht/The Commercial Appeal/Landov

Who Gets First Dibs On Transplanted Liver? Rules May Change

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U.S. Marine Sgt. Robert Scoggin gets a vaccination against smallpox in 2003 at Camp Pendleton in California — one of the final steps before deployment overseas. David McNew/Getty Images hide caption

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David McNew/Getty Images

Keep Or Kill Last Lab Stocks Of Smallpox? Time To Decide, Says WHO

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Being able to insert the two man-made letters into DNA, alongside the usual four-letter alphabet, could teach old cells new tricks and lead to better drugs, researchers say. courtesy of Synthorx hide caption

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courtesy of Synthorx

Chemists Expand Nature's Genetic Alphabet

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Botulism bacteria, or Clostridium botulinum, grow in poorly preserved canned foods, especially meat and fish. The microbe's toxin could be lethal as a bioweapon. Dr. Phil Luton/Science Photo Library/Corbis hide caption

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Dr. Phil Luton/Science Photo Library/Corbis

Who's Protecting Whom From Deadly Toxin?

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This mouse egg (top) is being injected with genetic material from an adult cell to ultimately create an embryo — and, eventually, embryonic stem cells. The process has been difficult to do with human cells. James King-Holmes/Science Source hide caption

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James King-Holmes/Science Source

First Embryonic Stem Cells Cloned From A Man's Skin

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The research team used yeast chromosome No. 3 as the model for their biochemical stitchery. Pins and white diamonds in the illustration represent "designer changes" not found in the usual No. 3; yellow stretches represent deletions. Lucy Reading-Ikkanda hide caption

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Lucy Reading-Ikkanda

Custom Chromo: First Yeast Chromosome Built From Scratch

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Erick Munoz stands by a photo of his wife, Marlise Munoz, at home in Fort Worth, Texas, on Jan. 3. She is being kept on life support in a local hospital against the family's wishes. Fort Worth Star-Telegram/MCT via Getty Images hide caption

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Fort Worth Star-Telegram/MCT via Getty Images

Directors and bioethicists hashed out how moral medical issues should be depicted on screen during a meeting in Los Angeles. Courtesy of Colin Crowley hide caption

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Courtesy of Colin Crowley

The botulism toxin comes from Clostridium botulinum bacteria, seen here in a colorized micrograph. James Cavallini/Science Source hide caption

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James Cavallini/Science Source

Why Scientists Held Back Details On A Unique Botulinum Toxin

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A warning to us all Universal/The Kobal Collection hide caption

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Universal/The Kobal Collection

What should parents be told before their premature infants participate in a clinical study? iStockphoto.com hide caption

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iStockphoto.com

In 2008, Michael Mastromarino was sentenced in a New York City courtroom for enterprise corruption, body stealing and reckless endangerment. Jesse Ward/AP hide caption

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Jesse Ward/AP

After President Obama overturned Bush-era policy restricting federal funding of embryonic stem cell research in 2009, Nebraska Right to Life led a protest of the research outside the University of Nebraska regents' meeting. Nati Harnik/AP hide caption

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Nati Harnik/AP