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"We have only begun to scratch the surface of the complex problems inherent in figuring out ... the brain's inner workings," said Paul Allen in 2012. Kum Kulish/Corbis/Getty Images hide caption

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Kum Kulish/Corbis/Getty Images

The fix was in for this rhesus macaque drinking juice on the Ganges River in Rishikesh, Uttarakhand, India. No gambling was required to get the reward. Fotofeeling/Getty Images/Westend61 RM hide caption

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Fotofeeling/Getty Images/Westend61 RM

In Lab Turned Casino, Gambling Monkeys Help Scientists Find Risk-Taking Brain Area

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Scientists at Johns Hopkins University are studying barn owls to understand how the brain maintains focus. Meredith Rizzo/NPR hide caption

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Meredith Rizzo/NPR

Scientists Study Barn Owls To Understand Why People With ADHD Struggle To Focus

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Jazz legend Billie Holiday at a recording session in 1957. Holiday's pioneering vocal style played with tempo, phrasing and pitch to stir hearts. Michael Ochs Archives/Getty Images hide caption

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Michael Ochs Archives/Getty Images

Several circular herpes virus particles are seen near a cell membrane. Roseola herpes virus causes a childhood illness marked by skin rashes and now has been found in brains with Alzheimer's disease. NCI/Science Source hide caption

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NCI/Science Source

Researchers Find Herpes Viruses In Brains Marked By Alzheimer's Disease

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Marines based in Okinawa, Japan, fire an M136 AT-4 rocket launcher as part of a weapons training exercise on the Kaneohe Bay Range Training Facility, in 2014. Lance Cpl. Matthew Bragg/U.S. Marines/DVIDS hide caption

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Lance Cpl. Matthew Bragg/U.S. Marines/DVIDS

Army 'Leans In' To Protect A Shooter's Brain From Blast Injury

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Scientists placed two clusters of cultured forebrain cells side by side (each cluster the size of a head of a pin) in the lab. Within days, the minibrains had fused and particular neurons (in green) migrated from the left side to the right side, as groups of cells do in a real brain. Courtesy of Pasca lab/Stanford University hide caption

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Courtesy of Pasca lab/Stanford University

Tiny Lab-Grown 'Brains' Raise Big Ethical Questions

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How do we make sense of all that chatter? Ilana Kohn/Getty Images hide caption

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Ilana Kohn/Getty Images

How People Learned To Recognize Monkey Calls Reveals How We All Make Sense Of Sound

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A hippocampal neuron seen in culture. Dendrites are green, dendritic spines are red and DNA is blue. Science Source/Getty Images hide caption

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Science Source/Getty Images

Sorry, Adults, No New Neurons For Your Aging Brains

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This light micrograph of a part of a brain affected by Alzheimer's disease shows an accumulation of darkened plaques, which have molecules called amyloid-beta at their core. Once dismissed as all bad, amyloid-beta might actually be a useful part of the immune system, some scientists now suspect — until the brain starts making too much. Martin M. Rotker/Science Source hide caption

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Martin M. Rotker/Science Source

Scientists Explore Ties Between Alzheimer's And Brain's Ancient Immune System

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Maria Fabrizio for NPR

Her Seizures Looked Like Epilepsy, But Her Brain Looked Fine

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Scientists zeroed in on specific neurons in the brains of mice to gain insights into how anxiety is triggered and suppressed. SPL/Science Source hide caption

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SPL/Science Source

Researchers Discover 'Anxiety Cells' In The Brain

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Neuroscientist Joseph Jebelli says that while a certain amount of memory loss is a natural part of aging, what Alzheimer's patients experience is different. Roy Scott/Ikon Images/Getty Images hide caption

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Roy Scott/Ikon Images/Getty Images

Neuroscientist Predicts 'Much Better Treatment' For Alzheimer's Is 10 Years Away

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Carl Luepker, his son Liam, 12, and daughter Lucia, 11, light the menorah during Hanukkah in their home in Minneapolis, Minn. Carl and Liam both have a degenerative nerve disorder called dystonia. Jenn Ackerman for NPR hide caption

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Jenn Ackerman for NPR

Could Brain Surgery Save A Father And Son?

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I guess it's too late to change my mind. Aşkın Dursun KAMBEROĞLU/Getty Images hide caption

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Aşkın Dursun KAMBEROĞLU/Getty Images

Why Your Brain Has Trouble Bailing Out Of A Bad Plan

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A chimpanzee skull, at left, and a human skull. Scientists are probing why our brains evolved so differently despite many similarities. D. Roberts/Science Photo Library/Getty Images hide caption

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Darren Pryce/Getty Images/Imagezoo

Sleepless Night Leaves Some Brain Cells As Sluggish As You Feel

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Alzheimer's disease causes atrophy of brain tissue. The discovery that lymph vessels near the brain's surface help remove waste suggests glitches in the lymph system might be involved in Alzheimer's and a variety of other brain diseases. Alfred Pasieka/Science Source hide caption

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Alfred Pasieka/Science Source

Brain's Link To Immune System Might Help Explain Alzheimer's

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