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Serikjan Bilash (left), co-founder of Atajurt, and wife Leila Adilzhan in Almaty, Kazakhstan. Per the terms of a plea deal, Bilash can't work in political activism for the next seven years, which includes calling out China's repression of Kazakhs. Emily Feng/NPR hide caption

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Emily Feng/NPR

Visitors are tracked by face recognition technology from state-owned surveillance equipment manufacturer Hikvision at the Security China 2018 expo in Beijing. Hikvision is one of several firms that have been added to a U.S. trade blacklist. Ng Han Guan/AP hide caption

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Ng Han Guan/AP

Chinese-style tile has replaced the domes and domed minarets of the Hongsibao Mosque in China's Ningxia region. Ningxia is home to a large concentration of Hui Muslims, who have long prided themselves on assimilation but are under increasing scrutiny by Chinese authorities. Emily Feng/NPR hide caption

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Emily Feng/NPR

'Afraid We Will Become The Next Xinjiang': China's Hui Muslims Face Crackdown

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Uighur detainees at a detention facility in Kashgar take vocational classes. All the detainees in this class admitted to having been "infected with extremist thoughts." Rob Schmitz/NPR hide caption

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Rob Schmitz/NPR

Reporter's Notebook: Uighurs Held For 'Extremist Thoughts' They Didn't Know They Had

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An ethnic Kazakh woman tried to cancel her Chinese citizenship after she married and moved to Kazakhstan. When she crossed back into China last year, the problems began. Nicole Xu for NPR hide caption

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Nicole Xu for NPR

'They Ordered Me To Get An Abortion': A Chinese Woman's Ordeal In Xinjiang

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Mir, a Pakistani man who used to live in Xinjiang, China, clutches the hands of his two daughters. Since Chinese authorities detained his wife, he's been raising their two girls alone. "My mind just won't work," he says. "I sound incoherent, I can't think, I even forget what to say in my prayers." Diaa Hadid/NPR hide caption

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Diaa Hadid/NPR

'My Family Has Been Broken': Pakistanis Fear For Uighur Wives Held In China

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Uighur security personnel patrol near the Id Kah Mosque in Kashgar, a city in northwestern China's Xinjiang region, in 2017. Xinjiang authorities have detained members of the Uighur ethnic minority, who are largely Muslim, and held them in camps the authorities call "education and training centers." Ng Han Guan/AP hide caption

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Ng Han Guan/AP

Ex-Detainee Describes Torture In China's Xinjiang Re-Education Camp

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Kalida Akytkhan, pictured with her son Parkhat Rakhymbergen, has two sons and two daughter-in-laws who have been detained in re-education camps in Xinjiang. She brought photos of her family to the offices of rights organization Atazhurt in Almaty. Rob Schmitz/NPR hide caption

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Rob Schmitz/NPR

Families Of The Disappeared: A Search For Loved Ones Held In China's Xinjiang Region

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Parwena Dulkun is a Uighur model who divides her time between Urumqi, the capital of Xinjiang, and Beijing. Uighurs share traits from both Asian and European ancestors, a look that is in demand among modeling agencies throughout China. Photo courtesy of Parwena Dulkun hide caption

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Photo courtesy of Parwena Dulkun

For Some Chinese Uighurs, Modeling Is A Path To Success

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At Urumqi's Grand Bazaar, a police officer chats with a local vendor while a video promoting China's ethnic minorities plays on a big screen overlooking the square. This was the site of Uighur protests in 2009 that sparked citywide riots, leading to the death of hundreds. Since then, the city has become one of China's most tightly controlled police states. Rob Schmitz/NPR hide caption

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Rob Schmitz/NPR

Wary Of Unrest Among Uighur Minority, China Locks Down Xinjiang Region

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A group of Uighur protesters demonstrate outside the Thai embassy in Ankara, Turkey, on Thursday to protest Thailand's deportation of 100 Uighur refugees back to China. Burhan Ozbilici/AP hide caption

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Burhan Ozbilici/AP

The Dzungar army surrenders to Manchu officers of the Qing Dynasty in 1759 in the Ili Valley, now part of China's Xinjiang region, in this painting made several years later by Chinese and Jesuit missionary artists. Wikimedia Commons hide caption

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Wikimedia Commons

Why A Chinese Government Think Tank Attacked American Scholars

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Policemen in riot gear guard a checkpoint on a road near a courthouse where ethnic Uighur academic Ilham Tohti's trial was taking place in Urumqi, Xinjiang, last week. Tohti, an economics professor, is accused of promoting Xinjiang's independence from China. Reuters/Landov hide caption

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Reuters/Landov