Handel: Ezio For this lively story of ancient Roman intrigue, Handel wrote nothing but recitatives and arias — no quartets, no trios, not even a duet. But he proved that in the right hands, the most predictable string of musical numbers blossom into an explosion of musical color and variety.
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Arias Aplenty: Handel's 'Ezio'

Arias Aplenty: Handel's 'Ezio'

From the 2009 Schwetzingen Festival

An Audio Introduction to the Opera

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Ralph Waldo Emerson is often credited as saying, "consistency is the hobgoblin of little minds." But that's not quite correct. He actually said, "foolish consistency is the hobgoblin of little minds." And that one extra word, "foolish," can make a big difference.

The Hit Single

Fulvia (soprano Netta Or) ends the opera's second act with the confident aria "La mia costanza," after admitting to Valentiniano that she was simply pretending to love him, and is still devoted to Ezio.

'La mia costanza'

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The B Side

At the end of Act One, when the emperor announces his engagement to Fulvia, Ezio (countertenor Yosemeh Adjei) responds with the furious aria, "Se fedele mi brama."

"La mia costanza"

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Countertenor Yosemeh Adjei sings the title role in Ezio, by Handel, in a production from the 2009 Schwetzingen Festival. Monika Rittershaus hide caption

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Monika Rittershaus

Countertenor Yosemeh Adjei sings the title role in Ezio, by Handel, in a production from the 2009 Schwetzingen Festival.

Monika Rittershaus

In some cases, surely, consistency can be seen — and heard — as a shortcoming. Opera composers surely wouldn't want all their works to sound the same; they'd aim for variety. Or would they?

Consider the works of Philip Glass. The composer's repetitive, minimalist style is nothing if not consistent — from one minute to the next, and sometimes, it seems, from one hour to the next. But whatever you might think of minimalism, that brand of consistency didn't turn out to be foolish — at least not in Glass's case. He wrote some of the most popular of all modern operas.

And about 275 years ago, there was another operatic style that thrived on consistency. The genre called opera seria was nothing if not predictable. It featured dry recitatives alternating with florid arias and occasional ensembles. The recitatives conveyed the story, and the other numbers showed off the singers — and that was about all the variety the style could deliver.

But, as with minimalism, the repetition and consistency of opera seria was anything but foolish — at least in the hands of the right composer. Working in the opera houses of 18th-century London, George Frideric Handel exploited the genre to become one of the most successful composers in Europe. And with his 1732 opera Ezio, Handel proved that even the most predictable string of numbers could become an explosion of musical variety.

In Ezio, Handel took the formal strictures of opera seria to their extreme. He eliminated everything but recitatives and arias. There were no duets and no trios, and just one, brief chorus to finish things off with a bang. In other words, the opera is nothing but recitatives and solo arias. But, oh, those arias. Over the course of three acts, Handel pumped out a dazzling collection of them — arias ranging from simple and melancholy, to sly and reflective, to dazzling and triumphant. And they're accompanied by some of the most original orchestrations he ever created.

On World of Opera for this week, guest host Korva Coleman presents Handel's Ezio in a production from one of Europe's foremost music festivals — the 2009 Schwetzingen Festival in Germany. The performance features countertenor Yosemeh Adjei in the tile role, along with soprano Netta Or and the Basel Chamber Orchestra, all led by conductor Attilio Cremonesi.

See the previous edition of World of Opera or the full archive

The Story of 'Ezio'

Handel's opera is in three acts, all set in ancient Rome, during the reign of the emperor Valentinian — or, in Italian, Valentiniano. The story centers on a conflict between the emperor and his famous general Aetius, who in the opera becomes Ezio.

Fulvia (soprano Netta Or, right) shares a moment with her lover, the warrior Ezio, in Handel's opera from Schwetzingen. Monika Rittershaus hide caption

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Monika Rittershaus

Who's Who?

Yosemeh Adjei ........ Ezio

Netta Or ............... Fulvia

Rosa Bove ........ Valentiniano

Hilke Andersen ...... Onoria

Donat Havar .... Massimo

Marcell Bakonyi .... Varo

Basel Chamber Orchestra

Attilio Cremonesi, conductor

Massimo (Donat Havar, right) threatens the emperor Valentiniano (Rosa Bove) over a long ago insult. Monika Rittershaus hide caption

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Monika Rittershaus

At first, the plot line is reminiscent of a later opera by Mozart, La Clemenza di Tito. In both stories, a Roman emperor is at odds with a close colleague because they both desire the same woman. And in both cases, things turn out alright in the end. But in Mozart's opera, the generous nature of the emperor Tito is evident early on. While in Handel's story, Valentiniano isn't nearly so accommodating, and for a long time things look bleak for Ezio.

As ACT ONE opens, Ezio has made a triumphant return to Rome, after defeating Attila the Hun in battle. Valentiniano welcomes him, and gives him his unconditional support.

Ezio then meets with the patrician Massimo, and Massimo's beautiful daughter, Fulvia. Ezio and Fulvia are in love, and they've been promised to each other in marriage. But Massimo has disturbing news. It seems that the emperor also wants to marry Fulvia.

As it happens, Massimo has a bone to pick with the emperor. It seems that Valentiniano once seduced Massimo's wife. Ever since, Massimo has been looking to get even — and then some. And he thinks maybe Ezio can help. So Massimo suggests that if Ezio really wants Fulvia, he should assassinate the emperor. Ezio is hesitant. The emperor is his supporter, and he trusts the ruler's judgment.

Ezio leaves, and Fulvia immediately gives her father an earful. First, she says, he pledged her to Ezio. Then he urged her to give in to the emperor. Again, Massimo has ulterior motives, telling Fulvia that if she marries Valentiniano she'll have a chance to murder him! She tells her father he should be ashamed of himself.

But Massimo's not giving up so easily. He makes plans for one of his servants, Emilio, to murder the emperor. And he sweetens the plot by making sure that if the attempt fails, Ezio will be the prime suspect.

Meanwhile, Ezio's growing popularity is making Valentiniano nervous. So he tries to remind Ezio of his imperial duty, by offering the general his sister Onoria's hand in marriage. But Ezio says he's in love with Fulvia, and Valentiniano tells him the two are now rivals.

Onoria then fuels the fire by revealing that Valentiniano is set to marry Fulvia the very next day. With that news, Ezio's loyalty to the emperor begins to fail him, and he ends the act with a furious aria.

At the start of ACT TWO, Massimo is waiting for news of his plot against the emperor. Fulvia brings word that the murder attempt failed. The emperor is unhurt, and recognized Emilio as his attacker. But, just as Massimo planned, Valentiniano thinks that Ezio was behind the whole thing. So the emperor turns to Massimo for help — and to Fulvia for love.

Fulvia knows what really happened, and tells Massimo that she'll renounce him unless he gives up his plans. Massimo reminds her that if she reveals the truth, his own life will be threatened.

Ezio then turns up, and he's basically clueless. All he knows is that the emperor was threatened, and he's come to give his support. Fulvia explains the situation, and tells Ezio that he'd best leave town. Ezio says his innocence will win out in the end. But for now, he's led away by the imperial guards, and the emperor's man Varo tells Fulvia that if she wants to play it smart, she'll go along with the wedding to Valentiniano.

The emperor decides that he and his future wife will decide on Ezio's fate. Ezio is brought in, still under guard. And when he sees Fulvia with the Emperor, he concludes that she has betrayed him. Ezio decides that enough is enough, and accuses Valentiniano of stealing his lover. At first, Fulvia continues her ruse, and pretends that she actually loves Valentiniano. But as the act ends, she gives in and tells the truth, saying the only man she truly loves is Ezio.

ACT THREE begins in Ezio's prison cell. Onoria stops by for a visit and tells Ezio that Valentiniano is prepared to let him go — provided that Ezio will confess the details of the assassination plot. Ezio refuses.

Onoria goes back to her brother and urges him to take a more conciliatory approach to Ezio, and the emperor agrees. Ezio is brought before Valentiniano, in chains, and the emperor also sends for Fulvia. Massimo has insisted that Ezio be executed. But Valentiniano is inclined to let Ezio and Fulvia be together, but with the same condition as before: Ezio must tell the truth about the murder conspiracy. Ezio again refuses. And this time, his boldness convinces Valentiniano that Ezio is innocent. Ezio leaves, expressing his gratitude to the emperor.

But Massimo isn't ready to give up. He's still determined to avenge the emperor's long-ago affront to his wife. And before long, Varo rushes in to announce that Ezio has been killed. Onoria quickly follows him, saying the attack was made by Massimo's servant, Emilio. But Emilio was gravely wounded in the process, and as he was dying, he confessed that Ezio was innocent of any wrongdoing.

Finally, it seems that Massimo's scheming has caught up with him. But Fulvia thinks it's her duty to save her father — and says that the whole thing was her idea. Valentiniano has had enough. He's lost his best friend and general, the woman he loves, and now the peace of his empire is threatened.

That's because Ezio's apparent murder plays right into Massimo's hands. Massimo takes to the streets, and urges the people of Rome to avenge the hero's death by deposing their tyrannical emperor. When Valentiniano shows his face, Massimo actually tries to kill him — but Fulvia steps in to prevent it.

Then, as the confusion mounts, Varo shows up — accompanied by Ezio! It turns out Ezio's death was a hoax. Massimo's treachery is finally evident to everyone, including the emperor. But, at Ezio's request, Valentiniano spares Massimo. He also blesses the union of Ezio and Fulvia, and everyone praises the extraordinary strength of the couples' fidelity.