Australian Prime Minister Backs Climate Change Australia's newly elected Prime Minister Kevin Rudd is in Bali, Indonesia, for the U.N. Conference on Climate Change. Rudd is a strong supporter of addressing climate change, a stance that helped him get elected to office.

Australian Prime Minister Backs Climate Change

Australian Prime Minister Backs Climate Change

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Australia's newly elected Prime Minister Kevin Rudd is in Bali, Indonesia, for the U.N. Conference on Climate Change. Rudd is a strong supporter of addressing climate change, a stance that helped him get elected to office.


Okay, let's follow up on that Australian prime minister who changed his nation's course on climate change. Kevin Rudd won election after campaigning on a promise to make climate change a priority. And that campaign may have been the first in a developed country where the issue of climate change helped determine the winner.

NPR's Michael Sullivan reports from Sidney.

MICHAEL SULLIVAN: Here's an inconvenient truth for Australian's former prime minister, John Howard. Maybe he should have agreed to meet with Al Gore when Gore came down under earlier this year.

Mr. MARTIN O'SHANNESSY (Chief Executive, Newspoll): During the early part of 2007, the environment became a more important voting issue than the economy. And I think the writing was on the wall there, and Mr. Howard was very slow to respond to it, and I think it created a great deal of cynicism about his commitment to the future.

SULLIVAN: That's Martin O'Shannessy, chief executive of the Australian opinion research firm, Newspoll.

Mr. O'SHANNESSY: Mr. Howard, our prime minister, continued to be a climate doubter. And it was only in the face of pretty heavy pressure publicly that he switched over and became a climate change touter, but I think it was too late for him on that one. The die was already cast.

SULLIVAN: Especially among younger voters who make up about a third of the electorate who tended to vote for Mr. Howard during the last election in 2004, O'Shannessy says, but turned solidly against him this time around. Howard's workplace policies were one reason they turned. His reluctance to acknowledge the threat posed by climate change was another - and not just for young people.

Mr. BILL McHARG (Businessman): It riled me. It riled me.

SULLIVAN: Melbourne businessman Bill McHarg calls himself a swing voter who has supported Howard's party in the past, but spent $200,000 of his own money this time around to persuade voters in Howard's own district to throw him out.

Mr. McHARG: I was not saying vote Liberal. I wasn't saying vote Labor. In fact, I wasn't endorsing any of the local candidates in John Howard's seat. I was saying vote for the party, the person that you believe will best represent the interests of our planet. Do not vote for John Howard. Put him last.

SULLIVAN: Howard did lose his seat, the first sitting prime minister to do so since 1929. Al Gore's movie and the International Panel on Climate Change's report earlier this year have contributed to Australians' heightened awareness of the challenges posed by climate change. A prolonged drought has focused attention on the issue, too - the worst in more than a century - in a country that's largely desert to begin with, one where many cities now face serious water shortages.

Dr. MICHAEL FULLILOVE (Program Director, Global Issues Program, Lowy Institute): The difference is that, whereas in the past, people might have looked at a drought and said, oh, bloody drought. Now, they look at it and say, bloody global warming.

SULLIVAN: Michael Fullilove is program director for global issues at the Lowy Institute in Sydney.

Dr. FULLILOVE: So there's an element of perception as well as the element of reality, but there's no question that people are concerned about it.

(Soundbite of TV news program, "Sky Evening News")

Unidentified Man: This is "Sky Evening News," with Michael Willesee and Susanne Latimore.

SULLIVAN: Last week, newly elected Prime Minister Kevin Rudd showed he understands those concerns.

(Soundbite of TV news program, "Sky Evening News")

Mr. MICHAEL WILLESEE (Newscaster, "Sky Evening News"): Within minutes of the ceremony in Canberra, Mr. Rudd began the process of signing the Kyoto Protocol on climate change.

SULLIVAN: Signing onto Kyoto was largely symbolic, since Australia is already on track to achieve its modest Kyoto targets, set before Prime Minister Howard took office. But Howard, like President Bush, refused to sign Kyoto right up to the end, arguing that binding emissions targets could make domestic business less competitive.

Don Henry, executive director of the Australian Conservation Foundation, says he's delighted Prime Minister Rudd is in Bali and has committed to signing Kyoto.

Mr. DON HENRY (Executive Director, Australian Conservation Foundation): But I think the live and crucial debate here will be Australia needing to do much more to cut our emissions here at home. And I think the big picture there is what is our 2020 target to cut greenhouse pollution going to be?

SULLIVAN: The government hasn't said what that target might be, though it has pledged what Henry calls a modest target of a 60 percent reduction in carbon emissions by 2050. Henry says it's a start. He's also encouraged by the response from some in the business community as well.

Mr. HENRY: Let me give you an example. The CEO of one of our biggest banks, Westpac, he started to see that Australian agriculture could be severely impacted. And he said to me, crikeys, we've got huge amounts of investment in agricultural Australia, and I've just realized we're carrying a massive amount of risk. And he said this bank has to pay attention to this issue.

SULLIVAN: Not just for agriculture, but for preserving some of Australia's iconic and lucrative ecosystems like the Great Barrier Reef, which brings in billions in tourist revenue each year. Former Prime Minister Howard's skeptical stance on climate change may not have cost him the election, but it certainly didn't help - a lesson some analysts here say politicians abroad should heed as well.

Michael Sullivan, NPR News.

INSKEEP: Remember that NPR News is in the midst of a yearlong series on climate change, a series of reports. And you can explore stories on how countries and cultures around the world are reacting and adapting by going to our Web site:

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Dispatches from Bali U.N. Climate Talks

Two environmental activists dress up as snails for demonstrations at the U.N. Climate Change Conference 2007 in Nusa Dua, on Bali island. Jewel Samad/AFP/Getty Images hide caption

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Jewel Samad/AFP/Getty Images

Q&A: Building a Post-Kyoto Roadmap


One of the most challenging issues at the U.N. climate talks is how to get the world's biggest greenhouse emitters — such as the United States and China — to take significant action to cut emissions. A look at what else is on the agenda in Bali and proposed solutions.

Delegates from around the world are meeting this week in Bali, Indonesia, to discuss how to tackle climate change after the Kyoto Protocol expires. NPR correspondents Richard Harris, on the scene in Bali, and Christopher Joyce file posts on the atmosphere outside the meeting rooms.

The Paul Revere of Climate Change


1:32 p.m. ET Thursday


The U.S. delegation isn't enjoying a very amiable reception in Bali at the soon-to-conclude climate conference held there by the United Nations. With most of the world's nations hankering for an ambitious new roadmap for limiting global warming, the U.S. has been applying the brakes all week. Most everyone else wants to set some sort of numerical limit on how much greenhouse gas emissions can grow by 2020. But the U.S. continues to say no to anything specific. It has Russia and Japan on its side, but as the world's leading skeptic on the whole U.N. apparatus for limiting greenhouse gas emissions, it's the Bush administration that's taking the big heat.


Al Gore, the Paul Revere of climate change, rode into Bali yesterday and turned up the thermostat by condemning the Bush administration's go-slow stance and reprising the call to action he made famous in his movie, An Inconvenient Truth. Basking in the glow of his newly won Nobel Peace Prize, Gore drew enthusiastic applause as he lambasted the Bush team in Bali.


It got worse by the end of the day. The target was a meeting the White House has scheduled for late January in Hawaii; industrialized nations are supposed to go hash out climate policies in a sort of "alternate" venue to the U.N. But several European diplomats in Bali suggested they'd boycott that meeting if the Bush team in Bali doesn't try harder to come up with language now on specific emissions limits on greenhouse gases.


There's still time for some sort of compromise so that delegations can leave Bali with something to show for two weeks of conferencing. But to longtime climate negotiators, the Bali conference was always in jeopardy because of timing. It launches two years of negotiations that are supposed to create a new climate treaty by 2009. That period spans the U.S. elections, and it's likely that whoever replaces the Bush administration will have a different take on international climate regimes.


It's hard, the analysts say with some understatement, to draft a complicated climate treaty when you don't know what the world's biggest economy is going to do until the negotiations are almost over. -- Christopher Joyce

Canvassing Cap-and-Trade


9:17 a.m. ET Thursday


Climate talks seem ridiculously technical. The documents that churn out of the photocopiers are full of code words that seem obtuse even when decoded. But if you look around Bali, there are actually simple examples of some of these arcane subjects. To cite two: "cap-and-trade" and "leakage."


Behold the wonderful canvas bag produced by meeting delegates. Want one? Too bad. They made only 2,000. That was the production "cap." You can only have one if you have a red badge that says "Party." No, that's not a reference to Tequila Sunrises, but to the fact that you are a government delegate, a party to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change.


So, lucky you, you can step up to the counter and get one of those coveted bags. But, like carbon pollution credits, there aren't enough bags to go around. So a small market has developed. Nondelegates have been spotted bartering other goodies for one of the conference bags. That's the "trade" part of cap-and-trade.


One of the coveted official canvas bags at the Bali conference.
The coveted but limited canvas bag.

If the climate talks go true to form, next year there will be even fewer of these bags (as fewer carbon pollution credits will be available on the global market over time). So the price of a trade will go up, and people will look around for something other than a canvas bag to carry their stuff (just like power plants that run on fuels that don't require the purchase of so many carbon pollution credits).


"Leakage" is another popular term around here. It refers to the fear that if carbon emissions are limited in the developed world but not in the developing world, industries will just leak across national borders and end up in countries where there are cheaper fuels.


Now, jump in any taxi in Bali, and you'll soon discover that gasoline must be very cheap around here. A typical ride costs two bucks, and surely it's not all going to the gas pump.


So why aren't industries already abandoning the industrialized world and "leaking" into Indonesia? Obviously, the price of energy isn't all they think about when they decide where to settle down. -- Richard Harris

Biggest Climate Show on Earth


12:58 p.m. ET Wednesday


Some might wonder why 10,000 people need to go to Bali to negotiate new international agreements to curb global warming. After all, the people who have the power to make deals for each of the participating nations in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change — they're the outfit that runs the world climate show — number about 150.


Well, these conferences are as much a bazaar as they are places for diplomacy. Hundreds of environmental and business groups (aka nongovernmental organizations) send squads of analysts, lobbyists, publicists and demonstrators to the meeting. They scramble to write position papers on what's being debated, either to influence the outcome, or, failing that, to reassure their supporters that they're trying to make a difference.


The biggies show off shiny new climate ventures. The World Bank, for example, announced a $350 million program to pay poor countries to cut down fewer trees so they'll emit less carbon into the atmosphere. It's been public knowledge for months, but there's no place like the big climate conference to announce it again.


Chinese musicians were also honored at the meeting for composing pieces that somehow publicize the threat of climate change. And many politicians came to pose for film and photos demonstrating their concern.


The crowd is so big (this year is said to be the largest climate meeting ever) that some embarrassment has begun to creep into the proceedings. Many organizations, including the United Nations staff that runs it, are proclaiming that they've bought carbon offsets to make up for all of the jet travel — travel that, of course, puts more carbon into the atmosphere. Offsets are created by projects somewhere in the world that reduce carbon. Buying offsets helps to neutralize their carbon-emitting behavior — like flying to Bali and back.


For all of those carbon brokers out there making commissions on buying and selling offsets, the Bali meeting has been good for business. -- Christopher Joyce


Lost in Translation


8:53 a.m. ET Wednesday


Say "Bali" and chances are your friends will correctly imagine palm trees along tropical beaches. Some of your friends may even know that Bali is an island in Indonesia. You'd hope that professional travel agents would know that, too. But a story from the climate conference in Bali reveals that's not always the case.


An economist from Washington, D.C. (who wishes to remain anonymous) says his travel agent booked him on a flight to Balikpapan, Indonesia. After he and his traveling companion alighted and passed through customs and immigration, he asked for directions to the international conference center. After quizzical looks and a parley with other customs agents, the officials broke into a hearty round of laughter. They informed him that he was off by about a thousand miles.


Turns out Balikpapan is on the island of Borneo. So the two intrepid climate travelers ended up on an island-hopping flight that eventually brought them to Denpasar. Haven't heard of it? You're not alone. Turns out it's the capital city of Bali. No surprise, the economist and his traveling companion are letting the free market work for them. They're shopping for a new travel agent. And last I heard, they're still trying to figure out how to book a flight home, without a stopover in Balikpapan. -- Richard Harris


Penguins in Bali?


1:07 p.m. ET Tuesday


It's true that the Indonesian island of Bali is just 8 degrees south of the equator. And it's also true that many people attending the United Nations' climate talks here are running around in short sleeves and short skirts to cope with the weather.


So why were two oversized penguins sitting on a bench in the Bali International Convention Center? Hint: They were waving fans printed with the logo of another black-and-white animal, the panda. That's the World Wildlife Federation's famous trademark.


Penguins looking for attention sit on a bench in the Bali International Convention Center.
Penguins looking for attention in Bali.

Such publicity stunts in general are another famous trademark of advocacy groups at U.N. climate talks. Greenpeace has a gargantuan thermometer outside the convention center to remind meeting attendees that the climate has already warmed by more than 1 degree Fahrenheit and projections are for much more.


To appeal to the conference wonks, Oxfam International created a huge graph of carbon emissions versus GDP per capita, reminding us that the rich generate most of the carbon dioxide that gets added to our atmosphere, and can afford to pay for the damage that hits hardest in poor countries.


Meeting organizers say there are more members of non-governmental organizations at the meeting than formal delegates (4,979 to 3,638), so the groups have to find some way to fill their days. So do the 1,462 journalists camped out in an enormous tent near the convention center. -- Richard Harris