French-born Mother Theodore Guerin was canonized Sunday, an event that would have seemed unlikely in 1840, when the nun's arrival in Indiana sparked clashes with her church's leadership.
Despite once being banished from her congregation by a local bishop, Mother Theodore went on to establish a community that is now a women's school, St. Mary-of-the-Woods College.
Her sainthood may provide inspiration to some U.S. Roman Catholics who today find themselves in disagreement with church leaders.
Mother Theodore's canonization was one of four announced by Pope Benedict.
The new Saint Rafael was a Mexican bishop who fled to Texas in the 1920s because the governor of Veracruz threatened to execute him. He was known for selling his belongings to help the needy.
Two Italian educators were also canonized: a priest who advocated for the education of the deaf in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and a nun who worked to establish the first public schools for girls in Italy.