MICHELE NORRIS, Host:
NPR's Neda Ulaby wondered why these publishing problems keep happening.
NEDA ULABY: It almost feels now like an annual occurrence: the running of the fraudulent memoirist.
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JAMES FREY: I wrote it from memory. I...
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ROY: I'm J.T. Leroy. My real name is Jeremiah.
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MARGARET SELTZER: Gangs in L.A. recruit like the NFL. They go out. They look at kids - okay, that kid doesn't have parents.
ULABY: Those were in order James Frey defending his memoir on "Oprah." The supposed young male writer J.T. Leroy, on a French talk show - he turned out to be a middle-aged woman - and Margaret Seltzer on NPR's TELL ME MORE, promoting her completely made-up remembrance of running drugs for gangs in L.A.
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ULABY: Unidentified Man #1; Greg Mortenson's book, "Three Cups of Tea," is a publishing phenomenon that has made him a celebrity, a cult-like figure on the lecture circuit and inspired people to give nearly $60 million to his charity.
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ULABY: But on CBS, Mortenson's story was debunked by everyone from journalist Jon Krakauer...
JON KRAKAUER: It's a beautiful story, and it's a lie.
ULABY: Unidentified Man #1: This is totally false, and he is lying. He was not kidnapped.
ULABY: The obvious question, posed by Oprah Winfrey to James Frey on her show...
OPRAH WINFREY: Why didn't you just write a novel?
ULABY: For the answer, let's turn to Ira Silverberg. He was JT Leroy's agent.
IRA SILVERBERG: The biggest problem publishers have is that the fiction category isn't as good as it used to be. And in the age of Oprah and celebrity, reality television and true tales, everyone wants a spokesperson for some horrible incident or some horrible tragedy. So a lot of writers feel forced into making a memoir of something that might more accurately be called fiction.
ULABY: Which horrifies acclaimed memoirists like Mary Karr, author of "The Liar's Club" and, most recently, "Lit."
MARY KARR: It's just - it's really obscene. I mean, as somebody - you know, I spend years writing books, and I spend a lot of time with the people that are in them.
ULABY: Karr says she does no fact-checking at all. Instead, she relies on collective memory.
KARR: I write the books entirely from memory. I don't do research, and then when they're done, I just send them to the people who are in them.
ULABY: Mr. SCOTT MENDEL (Literary Agent) And I think we know from memoirs going back all the way back from St. Augustine's confessions that, you know, writers embellish in order to make the point, in order to affect their readers as powerfully as possible.
ULABY: So why aren't publishing houses more careful, the way newspapers and magazines are?
MENDEL: There's actually a warranty clause where, you know, the author is obligated to assert that the facts are true and that there's no fraud being perpetrated on the public or on the publishing house.
ULABY: And the noble old world of publishing has not yet adapted to a digital age where fact-checking is sport, with results spread, smoking- gun-style, over the Internet.
KARR: I'm always suspect of a memoir in which someone becomes a hero.
ULABY: Ms. KARR It's not their job. If they had to have a fact-checking department like the New Yorker and fact-check at that level of detail, they couldn't afford to be in business.
ULABY: Book agent Ira Silverman agrees. But he thinks a distinction should be drawn between a literary memoir that looks at families or addictions and one like "Three Cups of Tea."
SILVERMAN: That book stands out as a very unique example of a news- making book.
ULABY: Dealing with live, active problems and people on the ground.
SILVERMAN: And should be treated with a little bit more vetting than something that is told, perhaps, in the past. I mean, this is a guy who's running a nonprofit.
ULABY: Neda Ulaby, NPR News.
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