SIDS: Many Deaths No Longer A Mystery For years, little was known about why babies died suddenly and unexpectedly in their sleep. But now, many of these deaths are believed to be preventable accidents caused by unsafe sleep practices. That's led some to question whether the term sudden infant death syndrome is still relevant.
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Rethinking SIDS: Many Deaths No Longer A Mystery

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Rethinking SIDS: Many Deaths No Longer A Mystery

Rethinking SIDS: Many Deaths No Longer A Mystery

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ROBERT SIEGEL, Host:

From NPR News, this is ALL THINGS CONSIDERED. I'm Robert Siegel.

MICHELE NORRIS, Host:

And I'm Michele Norris.

SIEGEL: Yet as NPR's Andrea Hsu reports, the mystery surrounding SIDS is not what it once was. And in fact, some are questioning whether the term SIDS remains relevant at all.

ANDREA HSU: For the past 11 years, the task of investigating those deaths has fallen to one woman.

NORRIS: We go out to see the family, usually immediately.

HSU: Patricia Tackitt is a pediatric mortality investigator. She'll spend anywhere from an hour to five hours talking with the family. She'll use a doll to help tell the baby's story.

NORRIS: I hand the doll to the parents, and ask them to show me where they placed the baby down, when they last saw it alive and how they found it, and who and what was around.

HSU: In all, Tackitt has gone to the scene of more than 500 infant deaths - so many, she stopped counting. In almost all of the cases, she says, she finds the same thing: that the baby was in an unsafe sleep environment - face down, covered by a blanket or pillow, lodged between sofa cushions, in bed with a parent who fell asleep and rolled on top of the infant, evidence that points to accidental suffocation, not SIDS.

NORRIS: There are some deaths we cannot prevent. These are not those deaths. The vast majority of these are preventable deaths. There's been very, very few that we've seen that could not be prevented.

HSU: But, Tackitt says, often the word SIDS comes up prematurely.

NORRIS: Why would we start out saying we don't know when we haven't even looked yet?

HSU: Patricia Tackitt's boss, Wayne County Chief Medical Examiner Carl Schmidt, takes issue with that approach.

HSU: I think that's cruel. I think actually sitting down with a parent and telling them what happened is much more humane than trying to obscure the reasons why that infant actually died. Most people really wanted to know what happened, so they won't do it again.

HSU: In Wayne County, it's been four years since they last signed out a death as SIDS. And that's true elsewhere, too.

HSU: In D.C., I don't think we've had a SIDS - a true SIDS - case in several years.

HSU: At Children's National Medical Center in Washington, Rachel Moon looks through infant death statistics for the District of Columbia.

HSU: All of the babies who die suddenly and unexpectedly have all died in unsafe sleep environments. These are all cases that could have been prevented.

HSU: As back-sleeping rates soared, the SIDS rate dropped. By 2000, it had fallen 50 percent. But since then, progress has stalled.

HSU: Oh, it drives me crazy. It absolutely drives me crazy.

HSU: Rachel Moon has been researching why so many people disregard the recommendations. She's found everything from misconceptions about the risks of choking to distrust of doctors, to confusion and skepticism.

HSU: Right now, what's happening is, you tell people that SIDS is when a baby dies and you don't know why. And so then, when you tell them, then, that they should put their baby on the back, sometimes they turn to you and say well, wait a second, how can you tell me that putting my baby on the back is going to help to prevent this thing that you don't know what causes it?

(SOUNDBITE OF PIANO MUSIC)

HSU: In nearby Baltimore, public health officials have replaced the word SIDS with these ABCs: Alone, Back, Crib.

NORRIS: I'm Ayana Williams(ph). I have one daughter, she's 12 years old. And I had a younger son, he would have been 11 months old...

HSU: In a public service announcement, three mothers whose infants died while sleeping deliver a safe sleep message, with almost no mention of SIDS.

(SOUNDBITE OF A SIDS PUBLIC SERVICE ANNOUNCEMENT)

HSU: A safe crib should have absolutely nothing in it but the sheet, a mattress, and actually nothing else - no blankets, no bumpers, no bears, no toys...

HSU: I ask pediatrician Rachel Moon if she can imagine dropping the word SIDS at some point.

HSU: Oh yeah, I can imagine a time when we just talk about safe sleep. And I think we're starting to get there. I think if people know that something is preventable, and they can visualize it happening, then they're more likely to take steps to try to prevent it.

HSU: Andrea Hsu, NPR News, Washington.

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