MELISSA BLOCK, HOST:
Now to one of the least connected countries in the world. In Cuba, millions of young people have never been online. Even having dial-up Internet can be the stuff of dreams. That was supposed to change this year with an undersea fiber optic cable linking Cuba to Venezuela. But six months after its installation, Cubans are still starved for Web access. Nick Miroff has the story from Havana.
NICK MIROFF, BYLINE: Watching government-run television newscasts in Cuba is often a strange experience, but especially so when the topic is social media.
(SOUNDBITE OF A CUBAN NEWSCAST)
UNIDENTIFIED WOMAN: (Foreign language spoken)
MIROFF: This recent report about Facebook and Twitter is a case in point. It's not that the Castro government here is telling Cubans those sites are something to fear. It's actually the opposite. The young reporter in this segment sits in front of a laptop and without a hint of irony extols the virtues of social networking as a source of real-time alternative information. But given the near total lack of Internet access here, she may as well be describing the surface of the Moon.
There are other strange sights on this island, like Cubans carrying new iPhones and BlackBerries brought in from Miami or Madrid that only work here for talking and text messaging. Others have brand-new laptops bought on the black market or sent from relatives abroad but no Web access so they stand outside condo buildings that house foreign businessmen trying to catch an open Wi-Fi signal. Then there are cyber cafes like this one in Havana that are woefully short on the cyber part.
Young Cubans line up here to pay $1.50 an hour to send and receive email. A snap poll of a dozen would-be Web users found only two people who said they'd ever been online. One was 27-year-old Hamlet Chirino, who saves up each month to pay $6 an hour for Internet use at a tourist hotel, or goes to underground cafes that offer black market Web access over slow dial-up connections.
HAMLET CHIRINO: (Foreign language spoken)
MIROFF: Life is really good here, Chirino said, but low salaries and the lack of Internet access are the two biggest problems. The government has been saying they're going to change those things for a long time, but we're still waiting.
CHIRINO: (Foreign language spoken)
MIROFF: Cuban authorities raised expectations earlier this year when they announced the completion of a $70 million data cable linking the island to Venezuela, boosting Cuba's bandwidth by a factor of 3,000. But Web access remains as slow and scarce as ever with no evidence of any urgency to get the cable working. Rumors swirl about technical problems or bad business deals with others here speculating Cuban authorities have been spooked by the Arab Spring and the critical role social media have played in it.
There's been no official explanation, leaving 20-year-old Jessica Cruz saying she thinks she won't get online until the Castro government is gone.
JESSICA CRUZ: (Foreign language spoken)
MIROFF: There's a saying here that flies can't get into a closed mouth, says Cruz, reflecting the view of many young Cubans who see a paternalistic government trying to deprive them of outside information.
Cuba's lack of Internet access is now a central theme in the 50-year standoff with the United States. First, the U.S. trade embargo kept the island cut off, Cuba says, and now, Washington wants to use the Internet as a tool of subversion.
A U.S. government subcontractor, Alan Gross, has been in jail here for two years for trying to set up satellite Web access on the island outside government control. And a small contingent of dissident Cuban Web activists has made Internet freedom one of their central causes. Blogger Orlando Luis Pardo says the government can't hold back the tide forever.
ORLANDO LUIS PARDO: In my opinion, that battle is lost. Not because the opposition or the independent bloggers are especially strong or very wide-known in the Cuban people, but because the official information is very poor, it's very solemn, it's very unbelievable.
MIROFF: A new Cuban government website called The Social Network could hold a clue to where things may be headed. The site is such a blatant rip-off of Facebook that it even has the word Facebook in its Web address. But there is one big difference. The Cuban version only connects to other users on the island and not to the wider world.
For NPR News, I'm Nick Miroff in Havana.
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