DAVID GREENE, HOST:
Let's turn to Afghanistan now and hear about one of the challenges there. Corruption in the justice system has been blamed for fueling the Taliban insurgency. The Taliban has tried to exploit the lack of trust in the judicial system by setting up its own courts in provinces along the border with Pakistan.
In an effort to counter the militant group's frontier justice, the Afghan government, with help from the United States, has been holding public trials in the same region.
NPR's Ahmad Shafi reports.
AHMAD SHAFI, BYLINE: Handcuffed and wearing dark blue traditional clothes, the defendant enters the newly renovated court of Chief Judge Mawlawi Mohibullah Seddiqi in the capital of Kunar province, about five miles from the border with Pakistan.
Members of the local community are waiting to witness the public trial of Abdul Wali, who is accused of manufacturing alcohol, a crime that carries a lengthy prison sentence in Afghanistan. Court clerks set up a table and put on display two plastic containers allegedly filled with homebrewed alcohol.
Chief Judge Seddiqi orders the handcuffs removed, and asks the defendant if he understands the charges against him.
CHIEF JUDGE MAWLAWI MOHIBULLAH SEDDIQI: (Foreign language spoken)
SHAFI: The judge invites the court-appointed defense attorney to state his case. The defense attorney, wearing a long robe, takes the stand next to his client. He says the police forced his client to sign a confession. In fact, the attorney says, the defendant Abdul Wali was just making a medicinal juice to treat his kidney pain. Was there any test to prove that the containers were full of alcohol? He asks the prosecutor.
UNIDENTIFIED MAN #1: (Foreign language spoken)
SHAFI: The prosecutor says the defendant has already confessed, and there is no need for a lab test. Chief Judge Seddiqi nods his head and asks the defendant why he needs 45 liters of the liquid if it was just some medicinal juice.
SEDDIQI: (Foreign language spoken)
SHAFI: After conferring with two assistant judges for only 15 minutes, Chief Judge Sediqqi renders his verdict: Guilty. Ten years in jail.
Although public trials are not new in Afghanistan, the U.S. hopes they will boost Afghans' confidence in their justice system, especially in provinces where the Taliban hold sway.
Abraham Sutherland, a U.S. State Department official working on rule of law in Kunar province, says it's a start, and that public trials can help defeat the insurgency.
ABRAHAM SUTHERLAND: I think that the justice system here contributes to security, or should contribute to security. And when they demonstrate that authority and responsibility for controlling crime and showing that people are treated fairly, that's going to draw support for the system.
SHAFI: But rampant corruption, nepotism and long delays in processing court cases have turned some Afghans - especially in remote provinces - to petition the Taliban courts. These are mobile courts set up by the militants to deliver brutal, but quick justice.
A farmer from Kunduz province in northern Afghanistan who did not want to be named says he had purchased a cow that turned out to be sick, and he wanted his money back. To settle his case, he went to a Taliban court, and he was reimbursed.
UNIDENTIFIED MAN #2: (Foreign language spoken)
SHAFI: Corruption in the government court systems would have cost me more money and time, he says. Plus, he says Afghan government courts punish the poor and give impunity to the powerful.
Hasan ul-Haq, a resident of Sheigal district in Kunar, says to convince Afghans their courts are working, they should put a senior official on trial for corruption. He points to the case of a contractor who was hired by the Americans in Kunar to build a road in the district.
HASAN UL-HAQ: (Foreign language spoken)
SHAFI: The community was looking forward to seeing the road completed, he says, and the tribes of Sheigal even warned the Taliban not to attack the road workers. But when the road was half-finished, the contractor disappeared with the funds, he says, and that turned the tribes of Sheigal against the Americans and the Afghan government.
American officials in Kunar acknowledge the project was cancelled because of poor performance and corruption. Ul-Haq says the Sheigal tribes will trust the Afghan justice system only when that contractor goes on trial.
UL-HAQ: (Foreign language spoken)
SHAFI: That man robbed the American taxpayers, says ul-Haq, and he deprived the people of Sheigal of the road they had dreamed of.
Ahmad Shafi, NPR News, Kabul.
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