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After decades of war in Afghanistan, the country is littered with landmines and unexploded ordnance. In the last two years, more than 1,000 people have been killed or injured by these remnants of war. And with each new battle, new locations are potentially contaminated. Protecting Afghans from harm isn't just about cordoning off or clearing areas. As NPR's Sean Carberry reports, it's also about educating them on the dangers.
(SOUNDBITE OF WIND BLOWING)
SEAN CARBERRY, BYLINE: Windblown villages of mud houses surround Bagram Airfield north of Kabul. Most of the people here are poor and illiterate. Many are nomads who settled here in the last decade. Two of the ways these people try to make a living can also kill them: grazing their animals or foraging for scrap metal. That's because they often conduct those activities on a NATO firing range.
The 30 square kilometer East River Range dates back to the Soviet era. It's full of mines, grenades and other ordnance that should have detonated during training exercises over the years. It sprawls along a mountainside and grazing areas. It's poorly marked, and only small sections are clearly identified by signs and concrete barriers.
ABDUL RAHMAN: (Foreign language spoken)
CARBERRY: A couple of months ago, 16-year-old Abdul Rahman was doing what a lot of kids in the village do. He was out picking up scraps of metal. He picked up something he didn't recognize. It turned out to be a grenade. It exploded and blew off both his arms. He's one of 15 reported casualties on the range over the last few years, though it's not clear how many incidents were caused by NATO or Soviet ordnance.
RAHMAN: (Foreign language spoken)
CARBERRY: He says he wasn't aware of the danger of the range. And if he had any idea that the object could blow off his arms, he wouldn't have touched it for a million dollars.
ZERGUL RAHMAN: (Foreign language spoken)
CARBERRY: Abdul Rahman's father, Zergul, lost part of his leg when he stepped on something while grazing his sheep at night. He says that in the dark, he couldn't tell where the range was. What's more tragic and vexing is that he didn't warn his son about the dangers of the range even after he lost his own leg.
MOHAMMED SEDIQ RASHID: We think that the main reason of these casualties is economic reasons.
CARBERRY: Mohammed Sediq Rashid is chief of operations of the Mine Action Coordination Center of Afghanistan. It's an Afghan-run organization that coordinates all the demining activities in the country.
RASHID: And we are constantly trying to work on this challenge, how to change the behavior of people.
CARBERRY: Mine Action has been doing awareness and removal work in Afghanistan since 1989. It oversees 13,000 people working to clear the country of mines and ordnance. Rashid says that NATO is taking more steps to alert the locals and keep them out of the East River Range, but even fencing off it completely wouldn't stop people from taking chances. Particularly challenging is protecting children who are often curious and unaware.
RASHID: When they find something unusual, they are playing with it. And they are playing with it together in groups.
CARBERRY: That's why children comprise the majority of casualties from unexploded ordnance or UXO. And while tragic and seemingly preventable, incidents at the NATO range cause only a small fraction of the casualties each year. More than 1,000 people were injured by mines or UXO over the last two years across Afghanistan. About two thirds of the UXO dates from the Soviet occupation of the 1980s.
But the war between allied NATO and Afghan forces and insurgents is leaving plenty behind as well. And Rashid says this is where NATO needs to do more to mitigate the danger.
RASHID: I think they are not adequately considering unexploded ordnance clearance post war.
CARBERRY: NATO says it does what's feasible within security constraints. Mine Action wants more coordination from NATO and wants to know sooner about incidents that might have left fresh UXO.
Mirwais Hussaini also works for Mine Action. He's visiting a clearing operation in Hakim Village north of Kabul. There hasn't been any fighting here for more than a decade, but several people are injured each year by mines dating back to the Soviet era.
(SOUNDBITE OF AN ALARM)
CARBERRY: A man covered in body armor demonstrates how he identifies a potential mine using a metal detector. Behind him, a clearing team is slowly working its way up a mountainside in the scorching sun. Hussaini says that whenever there is a report of a new fighting in a particular area, a mine risk education team is dispatched to the scene.
MIRWAIS HUSSAINI: We give them awareness to do not go, to do not use or do not let their children to reach this area. This is the way for the solution.
CARBERRY: Because of security issues and limited resources, it can be months before Mine Action can actually start clearing away new finds of UXO. And it could take a decade or more to completely rid the country of these deadly remnants. Sean Carberry, NPR News, Kabul
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