Japan's Economic Woes Offer Lessons To U.S. Japan's economy was a world beater in the 1980s. But the country has now gone through two tough decades and there's no end in sight. What lessons might it hold for the U.S. as it confronts the "fiscal cliff"?
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Japan's Economic Woes Offer Lessons To U.S.

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Japan's Economic Woes Offer Lessons To U.S.

Japan's Economic Woes Offer Lessons To U.S.

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The song "Turning Japanese" was a kitsch hit in the '80s. These days, though, it's taken on new meaning as a warning for post-industrial economies around the world: Don't become like Japan. And it's a message that resonates this holiday season as American politicians try to reach a debt deal. NPR's Frank Langfitt returned from Japan this week and filed this report.

FRANK LANGFITT, BYLINE: I'm standing in the Shibuya section of Tokyo. It's one of the most vibrant sections of the city. There's tons of cars, lots of people out shopping, and on the surface everything looks fine. The fact of the matter is public debt here is more than twice the size of GDP, and Japan's economy is back in recession once again.

HIROMICHI SHIRAKAWA: I actually feel that this economy is gradually sinking.

LANGFITT: Hiromichi Shirakawa is chief economist for Credit Suisse in Japan. He says a rapidly aging society, rising public spending and political paralysis have contributed to years of stagnation, and Americans should pay attention.

SHIRAKAWA: I really hope that U.S. is not getting into a Japanese situation. If you take a look at some economic indicators - very, very similar. So my concern is that the U.S. economy may - I would say may, not will - follow a Japanese economy's path.

LANGFITT: Over the years, the economies of Japan and the U.S. have faced some similar problems, albeit at different times and to different degrees. Both had real estate bubbles that burst, banking systems that racked up tons of bad loans, and both have ultimately unsustainable public debts, bigger than their GDPs. Shirakawa says Japan's economic problems are about 10 years ahead of America's.

SHIRAKAWA: American people should learn from Japan that the economy could be like Japan without the political will to change economic system.

ROBERT FELDMAN: I'm Robert Feldman. I'm the chief economist for Morgan Stanley MUFG Securities here in Tokyo.

LANGFITT: Feldman says one big problem is Japan is rapidly aging, driving up health care and pensions costs. But the electoral system here favors the elderly, so most politicians are afraid to slash services.

FELDMAN: It means they can't cut medical benefits, even though they are overgenerous. There is only a 10 percent copayment for older people when they go to the doctor, and they pay no insurance premiums.

LANGFITT: So, Japan continues to shovel money towards older people, running up the national debt, instead of investing for the future.

FELDMAN: Basically what we've done is borrow money for current consumption, which is not exactly the best way to improve productivity in the economy.

LANGFITT: As in the U.S., Feldman says the problem is fundamentally political.

FELDMAN: There is an inherent myopia in the way that democracies make decisions, and unless we can redesign our democratic institutions to think about the future a little bit more than we do right now, then the sustainability of living standards is called into question.

LANGFITT: Of course, analogies only go so far. The U.S. has avoided some of the traps that have ensnared Japan. For instance, the Fed flooded the American economy with money to avoid the price deflation that has plagued Japan. And Naohiro Yashiro, who teaches economics at International Christian University in Tokyo, says to their credit, U.S. politicians are trying to force themselves to confront the debt.

NAOHIRO YASHIRO: Japan also need such kind of device as fiscal cliff, you see. We don't have such schemes. So actually that's us who wants to, how do you say, follow the example of the United States.

LANGFITT: Feldman says voters in both countries have to look past their short-term interests and think about the long-term health of their economies. As an example, and perhaps a metaphor, he points to Japan's annual health exam, which includes body measurements.

FELDMAN: You've got to go to the doctor every year, and if your waist is a little too bit, he's going to tell you about it. Once you know that, then you are responsible for doing something about it.

LANGFITT: Feldman, a trim 59-year-old, went in for his exam last year.

FELDMAN: Fortunately, I was just under the limit. And they're pretty tough limits here in Japan. I was very proud of myself. And the doctor said to me: Hmm, not bad for an American.

LANGFITT: Frank Langfitt, NPR News.



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