AUDIE CORNISH, HOST:
From NPR News, this is ALL THINGS CONSIDERED. I'm Audie Cornish. I am so stressed out - how often do you hear that from a friend, from a partner, from a co-worker? How often do you say it yourself? I'm stressed out. Well, consider this: Before the year 1976, The New York Times had never published an article about stress - at least, stress as we understand it today.
The changing definitions of stress are one focus of a new book by Dana Becker. It's called "One Nation Under Stress: The Trouble With Stress As An Idea." Becker is a professor of social work at Bryn Mawr, and she joins us now. Dana Becker, welcome to the program.
DANA BECKER: Thanks, Audie.
CORNISH: So you're arguing that we need to essentially, rethink how we understand stress. And I want to start with some of the history that you write about - because it sounds like our current view of stress is pretty recent. I mean, how was stress thought of, earlier than the 20th century?
BECKER: Well, really, if we think back to the middle of the 19th century, George Beard - who coined the term neurasthenia - was really the first in this country to talk about American nervousness, really. Of course, he didn't call it stress then. But the idea was that a lot of physicians were finding that they had middle-class patients who seemed to be falling by the wayside with all of these things they were calling nervous disease, at the time. And Beard felt that it was really the fast pace of American life that had really caused people to feel nervous in this way.
CORNISH: And when he lists American stressors, he points to steam power, the mental activity of women, the cruely competitive marketplace, the pressures of urban life, the climate of the northeast - I mean, all of these things you can hear today, whether you said Internet, media, Facebook, mommy wars. But is there cultural shift there, in terms of thinking that it's a personal and internal thing that needs to be taken care of?
BECKER: Well, I think that he and folks who came after him had the idea that it was - stress was what was outside, you know; that the conditions were more important to talk about, and then we could certainly talk about the illness. And now, it seems that we've shifted; really brought that outside in. So we become preoccupied with risks to our health and our mental health, our psyches; and we lose sight of the conditions that really create the stress in the first place.
CORNISH: So is stress, essentially, culturally defined? You know, essentially, we're saying we kind of created it, as a concept.
BECKER: Yes, definitely. It's definitely an idea. It's not a thing out there. It's an idea. And it's an idea that has a certain currency. And it shapes, really, the way we talk, the way we think about our self, and the way we think about our relationship to the world, really.
CORNISH: Now, there's going to be a lot of people hearing this, in their car, with furrowed brows, saying, I definitely feel stress; stress is real. So help us understand what you mean.
BECKER: Well, I certainly can feel it at the moment, you know? I'm doing this interview and hey, I'm a little nervous about - I could say I'm stressed out. I'm certainly not saying - because people do ask me, you know, are you saying there's no such thing as the experience of stress? And I'm saying, no, no. We do experience something we are calling stress.
CORNISH: And you argue that at this point, there's a kind of stress inflation. What does that mean?
BECKER: Well, I think - you know, having read a lot of what the media has had to say about stress, it feels like we're using the term to cover just about everything from a hangnail to the war on terror. But the way that we react to stress also affects the way we are in the world; the way we act, the kinds of options that we have for how to behave. But I don't think anybody is really to blame. It's really about an idea that's taken hold, and it has its cultural moment.
CORNISH: But give us an example of what you mean by that, when you say that - kind of the way the idea takes hold of us.
BECKER: Well, for instance, let me give the example that I talk about quite a bit, in the book - this idea that working mothers are under tremendous stress today, right? There's a huge number of articles about working women stress, and a lot of advice on what we should do. You know, we should eat more kale; we should do yoga; we should exercise; we should make more to-do lists. So there's a primarily middle-class kind of solution, or these solutions, to what we see as the, quote, "stress" problem today.
But unfortunately, that draws us into thinking more about how stress is going to affect, for instance, our health, or our psychological health, than it does to think about, say, the fact that family and medical leave is still unpaid, that the school day is shorter than the work day is, that we still are a society that essentially devalues caregiving, that workplace policies haven't kept pace with dual-areer families.
CORNISH: But Dana, I mean, it's much easier for me to eat kale than to take on my school system's - you know, the length of the day.
BECKER: That's right. (LAUGHTER)
CORNISH: I mean, what's wrong with making a reduction of stress a personal pursuit, something you - one person actually feels they can take some control of?
BECKER: Well, I think it's fine. I actually don't think there's a problem. I think it's a both-end, right? You know, we've become so preoccupied with our health and the risks there are to our health, that I just fear that it rather obscures, sometimes, what we might be looking at as the social conditions that create the stress. And it sap us of our energy, to do that. I'm not suggesting it's not a good thing for us to take care of ourselves. It certainly is that.
And I think that you point out something, Audie, that's really useful to consider, especially now in a world where uncertainty is really king or queen, you know; that we want to control what we can control. And it's difficult for people to think in these large terms, in these social terms. But I guess my argument is that we need to do both, and that we want to understand the part that this whole discourse about stress, and this whole idea of stress, plays in the way we've come to think about our problems.
CORNISH: Dana Becker - she's the author of the new book "One Nation Under Stress: The Trouble With Stress As An Idea." Dana, thank you for talking with us.
BECKER: Thank you very much, Audie.
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