RENEE MONTAGNE, HOST:
This is MORNING EDITION, from NPR News. I'm Renee Montagne.
DAVID GREENE, HOST:
And I'm David Greene.
Three years ago today, a massive earthquake off the coast of Japan triggered a tsunami. Those twin disasters killed more than 18,000 people. More than a million homes and buildings were damaged or destroyed, and the Fukushima nuclear power plant went into meltdown.
MONTAGNE: In response, the Japanese government came up with a plan to build new, super-high, anti-tsunami barriers along 230 miles of coastline. The price tag for those barriers is estimated to be $8 billion.
GREENE: But public reaction to this project - which is dubbed the Great Wall of Japan - has not been positive. Lucy Craft reports from Tokyo.
LUCY CRAFT, BYLINE: Kesennuma is a small port city in Miyagi Prefecture. With its dramatic hills, white fishing boats and seafood market, Kesennuma has the pleasant nautical feel of Seattle.
In a prefab metal building, chefs at the Asahi Sushi restaurant assemble a big takeout order, the original restaurant washed away in the tsunami, along with the rest of Kesennuma's historic waterfront.
The rebuilding of Kesennuma has been slowed down by controversy over a supersized seawall, to be built along the inner harbor. Local residents and business owners say the originally planned nearly 17-foot-high seawall would turn this quaint seaport into a prison.
Among them is tsunami survivor and fisherman Makoto Hatakeyama.
MAKOTO HATAKEYAMA: (Through translator) We love this scenery, and we're worried about the environmental impact of seawall construction, which would affect my livelihood.
CRAFT: But for planners like Mitsutaka Kodama, of Miyagi's harbor restoration department, fortifying the coast is beyond question. Miyagi sustained almost 60 percent of the 18,000 casualties of 2011. Over 1,000 people died in Kesennuma alone.
MITSUTAKA KODAMA: (Through translator) Residential areas and evacuation routes must be protected by high walls. We can set back the wall, away from the water, to create more shoreline, or make it easy to climb to see the scenery, or cover it with greenery.
CRAFT: Yet despite the horror his community endured, sushi chef Rikio Murakami thinks seawalls are a bad idea.
RIKIO MURAKAMI: (Through translator) We've never had a seawall before. We've always coexisted with the sea, and we don't like being cut off from it.
(SOUNDBITE OF OYA BEACH)
CRAFT: I'm standing on a barricade overlooking what used to be one of the most popular and treasured landmarks in Miyagi Prefecture, called Oya Beach. Oya Beach is very well-known for its transparent waters. It was a popular place for Miyagi residents to spend the summer, but now, the government of Miyagi Prefecture plans to build a more than 30-foot seawall here. It will completely obliterate the beach.
(SOUNDBITE OF OYA BEACH)
CRAFT: A wall three stories high upsets residents like Tomoyuki Miura.
TOMOYUKI MIURA: (Through translator) Lots of us went to the shore, locals and out-of-towners alike. It was the pride of our community. Kids played there. Older folks strolled on the beach. We even had our own train station right next to it.
CRAFT: Opponents say the walls - although financed by the national government - would saddle struggling local governments with crushing maintenance costs. They say less drastic alternatives - such as moving communities to high ground or developing better evacuation techniques - have not been given enough attention.
UNIDENTIFIED MAN: (Foreign language spoken)
CRAFT: Controversy over the Great Wall has reverberated far beyond the disaster zone, in public forums like this recent one at Tokyo's Waseda University.
Nearly half of Japan's coastline has been armored against erosion and storms. Much of it, opponents say, is useless pork barrel spending, like a proposal to build $20 million seawalls on four uninhabited islands with no commercial value.
Satoquo Seino of Kyushu University says the seawall issue in northeastern Japan is already changing national policy.
SATOQUO SEINO: (Through translator) This is the first time that the last Japan has seen a concerted movement against building seawalls. Until now, it was just a local problem.
CRAFT: Despite their opposition, Kesennuma residents have been forced to accept a final compromise with the Miyagi regional government: Within the next two years, the town will have a new 14-foot-high seawall.
For NPR News, this is Lucy Craft, in Tokyo.
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