SCOTT SIMON, HOST:
The end of each summer, spectators flock to Tennessee to see the smooth, high-stepping gate of the Tennessee Walking Horse at the annual Walking Horse Celebration in Shelbyville. Saturday is the finale, but the 75-year tradition has come under a cloud. Animal rights groups say the most spectacular high-stepping comes from inflicting pain on the horse. Congress has chimed in, and the Walking Horse industry is trying to show that it's serious about reform. Blake Farmer of member station WPLN in Nashville reports.
BLAKE FARMER, BYLINE: In Shelbyville, Tennessee, the Walking Horse is an icon and a way of life. For 10 nights in August, thousands of fans cheer from their box seats as well-manicured horses prance around a dirt, oval track. Their powerful back legs swing forward, reaching well beyond their front hooves, which then kick up and out.
MIKE INMAN: And their knee breaking above their chest and shaking their heads in cadence, that's what they do.
FARMER: Mike Inman is director of the annual celebration. He says the unmistakable gate comes naturally.
INMAN: It is actually in their genetics. No other breed has that which is what separates a walking horse.
FARMER: But for years, trainers have been pushing horses well past genetics to get that eye-catching step called the big lick. One banned practice is called soring. Trainers make tiny cuts on a horse's ankles and splash diesel fuel or mustard oil on them. The pain is believed to make the horse step even higher. The Humane Society of the United States has been trying to end soring for years. Keith Dane is the organizations equine specialist.
KEITH DANE: This is an industry that has been based for over 40 years on intentional infliction of pain and cruelty to animals. And it's so widespread in the big lick segment of this industry that it's got to stop.
FARMER: Soring was outlawed by Congress in the '70s, but there's been spotty enforcement. The Humane Society has gotten traction with new legislation that would give more teeth to the law. Dozens of congressmen from both sides of the aisle have signed on, but it's been fought to a standstill by the industry.
(SOUNDBITE OF HORSES NEIGHING)
FARMER: Trainer Sylvester Skierkowski watches his horses go through some final paces before competition.
SYLVESTER SKIERKOWSKI: I've been a part of winning just about every class up here.
FARMER: There's money at stake, though not huge sums. The top prize was $15,000 last year. Skierkowski says it's really about being named World Grand Champion. He helped train one in the late-'70s.
SKIERKOWSKI: We worked more keeping that son-of-a-gun sound than we did trying to hurt him.
FARMER: Still, there have been some high-profile soring cases. Just two years ago, one trainer was indicted on more than 50 counts of abuse. Again, celebration director Mike Inman.
INMAN: Nobody's denying that there are people that will try to game the system in any competition, but the best way to make it so they can't game the competition is through objective testing.
FARMER: This year, for the first time, the celebration will use blood tests to screen for painkillers that may have been used to mask that a horse is hurting and x-rays to find other banned practices, like shoeing horses so tightly that they step higher out of pain. Dr. Jerry Johnson chairs this new enforcement panel.
DR. JERRY JOHNSON: We feel like now, with what we're doing, that they're really going to have to clean up their act.
DANE: This looks like one more attempt by the Celebration to try the 11th hour to suggest that they are serious about reform and protecting the horses.
FARMER: Keith Dane of the Human American Society points out that results of the drug test will take three weeks to get back - well after everyone's gone home. In Shelbyville, the Humane Society is widely seen as an unrelenting pest. Leading her horse to its stall, Lauren Hamilton suggests the organization should move on.
LAUREN HAMILTON: Racehorses - they're falling down on the track. Do you see these horses die out there? That's when I get upset.
FARMER: But even among walking horse owners, there are a few voices calling for an end to the obsession with exaggerated high-stepping. Van Barns competes in what's called the flat shod division.
VAN BARNS: They don't have a problem getting through inspection.
FARMER: You feel like that's where it's going is that you're just going to have to get away from the big lick?
BARNS: I think for the industry to survive, they're going to have to.
FARMER: If it's any indication, at this year's celebration the number of horses competing is down at least 10 percent, and so is attendance, even after ticket prices were slashed. For NPR News, I'm Blake Farmer in Nashville.
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