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In this year's election, millions of Americans - about 1 in 5 - are expected to vote absentee or by mail, but tens of thousands of those ballots are likely to be rejected. And as NPR's Pam Fessler reports, the voter might never learn why.
PAM FESSLER, BYLINE: Volunteers were at a busy subway stop in Montgomery County, Maryland this week handing out brochures encouraging voters to cast their ballots early.
UNIDENTIFIED WOMAN #1: Hi, would you like information about early voting in Maryland? Hi, information about early voting in Maryland?
FESSLER: It's part of a massive push by election officials and campaigns across the country to ease the load on Election Day. One of the main ways that people can vote early is by mailing in an absentee ballot. Alysoun Mclaughlin is deputy director of the Montgomery County Board of Elections.
ALYSOUN MCLAUGHLIN: Election Day is a Tuesday. Many voters just don't find it convenient to get the kids to school, go vote then make their way to work.
FESSLER: But she says for some voters, more options lead to more confusion and that can mean more mistakes.
MCLAUGHLIN: A little less than 1 percent of our absentee ballots we end up having to reject for one reason or another.
FESSLER: And while that might not sound like a lot, it is. The U.S. Election Assistance Commission found that in 2012 more than a quarter of a million absentee ballots were rejected. The number one reason? The ballot wasn't returned on time, which in most states is by Election Day. Sometimes it's the voters fault. Others blame the post office.
Kim Alexander is with the California Voter Foundation. She says this past June almost 600 absentee ballots arrived at the Santa Cruz County election office the morning after the primary. All were rejected.
KIM ALEXANDER: It's absolutely heartbreaking because the only thing worse than people not voting is people trying to vote and having their ballots go uncounted, and most of these people have no idea that their ballots are not getting counted. They could be making the same mistakes over and over again.
FESSLER: And those mistakes are often easy to avoid. Many voters just forget to sign the ballot. Sometimes they'll return envelope without the ballot inside. Mclaughlin of Montgomery County says there are also what she calls the just-in-case voters, who vote twice, first by mailing in their absentee ballot.
MCLAUGHLIN: They're concerned that maybe it won't get back to us in time so then they also go to the polls and they vote.
FESSLER: Which is illegal so both ballots are rejected. Other problems are harder to fix. In some states the signature on the mail-in ballot must match the one the election office has on file. Kim Alexander says that in California many of the signatures come from the Department of Motor Vehicles, where people sign their names using a stylus on a pad, which can look a lot different than a signature written on paper.
ALEXANDER: You also have the issue of younger people whose signatures change over time. You have older voters whose signatures change over time, too and voters have no idea what image of their signature is on file.
FESSLER: She says it could be 10 or 15 years old. Thousands of California absentee ballots were rejected in 2012 because the signatures didn't match. Paul Gronke runs the Early Voting Information Center at Reed College in Oregon. He's concerned about all these lost votes.
PAUL GRONKE: So after the 2000 election, a lot of attention was paid in this country to voting machines to make sure that no one was denied the right to vote because of a machine that didn't function properly, or a chad that did not hang properly.
FESSLER: But he says mail-in ballots haven't received that same attention and Gronke says, in a close election rejected ballots could make a difference. A California study found they're more likely to be cast by young voters or non-English speakers and Gronke says, a study he did in Florida found lots of absentee ballots got tossed in precincts made up entirely of senior citizens.
GRONKE: As many as a third of the ballots in some cases were rejected because of errors.
FESSLER: He doesn't know what those errors were, but says it does raise questions about whether instructions on how to vote absentee are clear enough. Election officials are doing more to try to educate voters on the process, but better yet says Kim Alexander, they should notify voters when their ballots have been rejected and tell them why so they don't make the same mistake twice.
Pam Fessler, NPR News.
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