MELISSA BLOCK, HOST:
More than a dozen writers, poets and activists in Gaza received threatening fliers earlier this month. They were signed by the self-proclaimed Islamic State, or ISIS. A few days later, a new flier, also signed by ISIS, denied responsibility and apologized. All this is making people wonder is ISIS - the group that's notorious for its brutality in Iraq and Sierra - now taking root in Gaza or is somebody just playing around? NPR's Emily Harris reports.
EMILY HARRIS, BYLINE: Donia al-Amal Ismael was sent the first flier via Facebook. It accused her and other writers of speaking ill of God and Islam and threatened to slit their throats. She was scared.
DONIA AL-AMAL ISMAEL: I talk with my family and with my husband and my daughter says stay in the home. Don't move. Don't go outside the home.
HARRIS: She didn't think ISIS wrote the flier, though. She thought it was Hamas. The Islamist faction dominating Gaza had criticized her work on women's rights before.
ISMAEL: I am Muslim (speaking foreign language). But I have another vision for the Islam - different from the vision which Hamas believe it.
HARRIS: Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu has called ISIS and Hamas branches of the same poisonous tree. The U.S. State Department labels both terrorist organizations, but says their goals are different and calls ISIS much more brutal using rape as a weapon and pursuing genocide. Gazan analyst Mkamier Abu Sada says whoever put together the threatening flier wanted to stir things up.
MKAMIER ABU SADA: It seems to me that there are some extremist elements here in Gaza who are trying to basically frighten the Palestinians or create a situation where the Palestinians would basically say that living under Hamas is definitely much better than living under ISIS and other extremist organizations.
HARRIS: Hamas claims Israeli intelligence sent out the flier. Israeli analyst Harel Chorev laughs at this, but he says Israel actually wants Hamas to stay in power in Gaza.
HAREL CHOREV: On the one hand, you have Israel justfuly denouncing Hamas for being a terror organization. On the other hand, Israel know that there's no better alternative, so Hamas is the devil you know.
HARRIS: Like most observers of Gaza, Chorev says there are groups more extreme than Hamas there, but he does not believe there's any significant ISIS presence in Gaza.
CHOREV: You can be sure that if it was Hamas - despite its problematic situation now and difficulties - would crush them with no limits.
HARRIS: Hamas has killed off rivals in the past. It remains the power in Gaza, but it is also vulnerable - unable to pay police or speed up postwar reconstruction. Harel Chorev says if a Gaza power vacuum gave room to more extreme groups they might try to become famous on the back of ISIS, now known around the world.
CHOREV: You know, ISIS is sort of - its like al-Qaida. It's first and foremost a brand name.
HARRIS: And conjuring an image of ISIS in Gaza is useful for Israeli politicians and Hamas leaders alike. After this episode of a threat than an apology, poet and women's rights activist Donia al-Amal Ismael decided to consider the whole thing a joke.
ISMAEL: I think that I must deal with this event as a joke, to continue in life, to prevent myself to break down, to be strong.
HARRIS: For her children, she said, and strong enough to keep speaking up for her beliefs. Emily Harris, NPR News.
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