DAVID GREENE, HOST:
Parents are often told that literacy begins at home. And there are some simple things parents can do with their young children to help them get ready to read, but parents can't necessarily do all of this alone. Many need the support of community services, perhaps most importantly libraries. In the second part of her series on early literacy NPR's Lynn Neary takes us northwest of Baltimore to the libraries of Carroll County, Maryland.
LYNN NEARY, BYLINE: In the children's section of the Mount Airy Library in Carroll County, no one was telling parents and children gathered there one cold, wintery morning to be quiet, quite the contrary.
(SOUNDBITE OF CHILDREN IN LIBRARY)
NEARY: This is the library's play and learn center where parents and children can read together and play together. Jenny Busbey and her daughter Layla are using the puppet theater to go on an imaginary adventure.
JENNY BUSBEY: OK. Ready?
BUSBEY: Let's go.
LAYLA: Buckle my wings in. Buckle, buckle, buckle.
NEARY: There and play and learn centers in all of the Carroll County libraries. Dorothy Stoltz, head of outreach and programming, says it's just one way the library is encouraging parents to engage in five basic practices that lay the ground work for literacy.
DOROTHY STOLTZ: It's just talk, sing, read, write and play - something that is doable for every parent no matter how busy you are. You can fit in these practices in little bits of time with your children throughout the day.
NEARY: These five practices grew out of a body of research showing that parental interaction with children at an early age is crucial to later success in school. A study done in 1995 indicated that children from higher-income families heard 30 million more words at home by the age of 4 than children from low-income homes. This has become known as the 30 million word gap.
SUSAN NEUMAN: When you learn words and know words, it's easier to gain words.
NEARY: New York University Professor Susan Neuman is one of the educators who came up with the five practices. Neuman says children who live in a rich, verbal environment enter kindergarten with an advantage that continues to grow through the years.
NEUMAN: Children who have heard many words are likely to understand more words. They're also likely to be able to learn basic phonics or decoding skills. So those children are on a trajectory of success, and those children who are - have rich vocabulary are reading, reading on their own, learning new words through books. Those children who are not are slowing down, may hate reading and as a result, get slower and slower over time.
UNIDENTIFIED WOMAN #1: Hi.
UNIDENTIFIED WOMAN #2: Right here?
UNIDENTIFIED WOMAN #1: Hello.
NEARY: Carroll County has woven the five practices into all of its programs for young children from a series called Every Child Ready To Read, which provides formal training for parents and caregivers, to activities like story time for babies and toddlers.
ROBIN DUGAN: And these instruments are great for cause and effect, anything your child can use to make a sound.
(SOUNDBITE OF CHILD LAUGHING)
NEARY: This is not your traditional story time where the librarian reads a book while children and parents listen quietly. Librarian Robin Dugan gets parents involved.
DUGAN: This book, caregivers, has rhythmical text, and I think it has visual cues. So if you can join with me, that would be great. You're your child's best teacher, and they really enjoy doing things with you. The title is "Baby Bear, Baby Bear, What Do You See?".
NEARY: And it's not just about reading. They're singing, ringing bells, brightly colored eggs that make noise when you shake them. As Dugan moves from one activity to the next she encourages parents to play, sing and talk with their children.
UNIDENTIFIED WOMAN #3: What color egg? Yellow and green.
UNIDENTIFIED CHILD #1: (Unintelligible).
UNIDENTIFIED WOMAN #3: Shake, shake, shake.
NEARY: Dugan says her first goal is to make story time fun.
UNIDENTIFIED WOMAN #3: Yay. Good job, bud.
NEARY: But she also hopes to give parents the tools they need to prepare their toddlers for learning to read when they get older.
DUGAN: If a parent or a caregiver thinks, oh, I now see why we sing these songs, they're more likely to do it at home or to try it at home. Or they may recognize a behavior that a child is doing that's connected to here, which will, one, bring them back more and, two, you know, have them then maybe be motivated to try on their own to expand that and have some confidence in their abilities to teach their children.
NEARY: For some parents in Carroll County, attending the library's play-and-read session is an easy, natural thing to do. That's not the case for all families.
VIVIANA CALDERON: They are afraid to go by themselves.
NEARY: Viviana Calderon is a parent educator with the Judy Center, an early literacy support organization that partners with the Carroll County Library. Calderon works with the Spanish-speaking community and says many of her families have never been to the library.
CALDERON: First they say we don't speak English. How I can ask for a book? How I can ask for a card? They don't know about the card. They don't know about the bookmobile. So we show them.
NEARY: Carroll County is a largely rural area sprinkled with new, middle-class subdivisions, but it also has pockets of poverty. The bookmobile is one way to reach a wide range of families. It regularly stops at day care centers.
KELLEY GORDON: You're welcome to come on board if you like. Once the kids all get up in here, it'll be a little too crowded probably.
NEARY: On this day, librarian Kelley Gordon is visiting a home child care center run by Barbara Summers.
GORDON: She's one of our veteran providers, and she checks out a lot of stuff so (laughter)...
UNIDENTIFIED CHILD #2: Look, I found a book. I found a new book.
GORDON: What did you find?
BARBARA SUMMERS: What did you find?
NEARY: The children grab books off the shelves of the narrow vehicle and make a big pile on the floor. Barbara Summers says most of her kids have never been to a library.
SUMMERS: In the 30 years I've been doing child care, I've only had, like, three families that visit the library.
NEARY: So this introduces them to the idea of the library?
GORDON: Do any families get interested in the library via the bookmobile that you know of, that you work with?
SUMMERS: Yes. As they start hitting around 4, they will really start encouraging and egging mom and dad on to, you know, take me to the library, get me a card.
NEARY: The Carroll County library also reaches out directly to parents, says librarian Dorothy Stoltz, during informal discussion groups.
STOLTZ: And we always ask the parents the question, what more can the library do for you and your family? So I think if libraries can listen and respond to families, it's helping us do our best work.
NEARY: There is no one answer to the problem of illiteracy, but early childhood intervention is key. And Carroll County's programs for families provide a model for how libraries can support parents with the all-important task of getting their children ready to read. Lynn Neary, NPR News, Washington.
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