MELISSA BLOCK, HOST:
Iraq's neighbor Saudi Arabia is often accused of having ties to Islamist militants, But Saudis say they're also victims of terrorism. The country estimates that ISIS has recruited more than 2,000 Saudi men despite government programs to stop them. And the Saudi government shares the fears of the U.S. and Europe that these recruits could carry out attacks back home. In Riyadh, NPR's Deborah Amos got a rare look at the Saudi special operations forces training for counterterrorism missions.
DEBORAH AMOS, BYLINE: Train as you fight. That's what they say here in this secretive, tightly guarded training center. It's a sprawling campus on the outskirts of the capital where Saudi security officers drill on scenarios taken from real life attacks. With cameras rolling for feedback and sensors to measure reaction time in seconds, training is intense.
MAJOR AHMED HIKIMI: Go.
AMOS: Ten fully armed, high-tech men who are going to assault a building.
HIKIMI: Exactly. So this is the scenario. Yeah.
(SOUNDBITE OF GUNSHOTS)
AMOS: Major Ahmed Hikimi translates for this live fire exercise as black clad men move room to room, a drill to clear a militant hideout in under two minutes. The walls in this training arena are covered with heavy foam to absorb the bullets.
(SOUNDBITE OF GUNSHOTS)
AMOS: This month, much of the training has moved to Saudi Arabia's northern border. For the first time, all of the kingdom's security units - all seven are training together - also for the first time near the Iraqi frontier, says General Mansour al-Turki. He's the spokesman for the Ministry of Interior. The exercise comes after a Saudi general was killed in a suicide attack near the border in January. Attackers who came from Iraq also killed a border guard in the skirmish.
GENERAL MANSOUR AL-TURKI: We want to make sure that this coordination is upgraded and that integration will take place when they have to face terrorists trying to cross the border of Saudi Arabia.
AMOS: Saudi Arabia's new king, Salman, recently inherited the throne at a time of regional turmoil and lower oil prices. Salman quickly named his new team. His youngest son at the Ministry of Defense, the rising star, is another close relative, Muhammad bin Nayef. The mew minister of interior is 55 years old. He's U.S.-educated and now oversees all internal and external security. His first move - to streamline command of the security services. Academic Paul Pillar, a former U.S. intelligence officer for the Middle East, says the king's appointments are based on royal politics.
PAUL PILLAR: Clearly, the moves he's made have been in the direction of concentrating more power in parts of the family that are more closely associated with him. The intra-royal family politics are always going to be a large part of it.
AMOS: But in this case, he says, the new power lineup also addresses rising security threats - terrorism, rather than an external army rolling across the border. Pillar says it's why the special operation forces are now taking the lead.
PILLAR: Intense, elite and small is what they need right now rather than large and cumbersome. When the Saudi's have decided to place high priority and intense resources in a particular effort, they have done things very well.
AMOS: We're standing in another training room. The floor is unsteady by design. Pop-up targets move quickly in a drill that tests reactions - friend or foe.
Friend has a camera, and the foe has a gun. And they have to be able to tell immediately which is which.
HIKIMI: Exactly - whether to shoot or not.
AMOS: The room can be dim for a nighttime drill. Trainers can add distractions - noise, heat, a drill after a 10-mile run, says Major Hikimi.
HIKIMI: It's not only training to shoot, but put him under pressure and test his ability to shoot.
AMOS: Saudi Arabia is under pressure, too.
When ISIS sends people to cross your border, did they send Saudis?
AL-TURKI: Oh, all of them are Saudis.
AMOS: General Turki says it's a message from ISIS that Saudi Arabia is a target. Deborah Amos, NPR News, Riyadh.
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