MELISSA BLOCK, HOST:
Rural school districts and counties that have a lot of federal forest land will get less money from the U.S. government this year - $250 million less. That's because Congress allowed the Secure Rural Schools Act to expire. Nearly every state is losing money. Idaho, for instance, is out $26 million. Emilie Ritter Saunders of Boise State Public Radio reports.
EMILIE RITTER SAUNDERS, BYLINE: The Basin School District in rural south-central Idaho has something most districts in the state don't - preschool. On Wednesdays, these 12 preschoolers leave their small house-turned-school and walk across the playground to the high school's music room. Music class for preschoolers is all about rhythm, following directions and giggles.
(SOUNDBITE OF ARCHIVED RECORDING)
UNIDENTIFIED CHILDREN: (Laughter).
UNIDENTIFIED MAN: Holding one high - hold one high and tap with the other one - switch.
SAUNDERS: Idaho doesn't have public preschool. Schools that want to offer it have to find creative ways to pay for the program. State money isn't an option. Over the last 15 years, this preschool program has been paid for by a grant, a voter-approved levy, some tuition, fundraisers and federal Secure Rural Schools Act money. Teacher Mary Allen says the program has shrunk over the years.
MARY ALLEN: I don't know how the program could be reduced any more than it is. It's already only two days a week.
SAUNDERS: Basin's entire budget is $3 million. It's taking a double hit because its levy funds run out next year, and it'll lose Secure Rural Schools money. First approved by Congress in 2000, the law pays counties that have a lot of federal timber land. That land isn't taxable. You can't develop it, and resource and recreational opportunities are restricted. Now federal-land-heavy counties across the country will get just a fraction of what they'd planned on. For instance, Idaho got $28 million last year. This year it gets 2 million.
SENATOR MIKE CRAPO: I view this as a responsibility of the federal government.
SAUNDERS: Mike Crapo is a Republican senator from Idaho. He signed on to a bipartisan bill that would reauthorize the Secure Rural Schools Act and fully fund a separate support system for these rural counties called PILT, or payment in lieu of taxes.
CRAPO: This is not a spending program like most federal programs. This is a responsibility the federal government has to the states and, frankly, to the counties for the impact on the counties that is being caused by the federal government.
SAUNDERS: Crapo and other lawmakers from rural states say until counties and school districts have a way to make money on federal land, Congress needs to reauthorize the payment plan. Idaho has more federal land than almost any other state - 63 percent of Idaho is public, federally owned land. Basin School District's county is nearly 75 percent federal.
JOHN MCFARLANE: My name's John McFarlane. I am superintendent, secondary principal and science teacher at Basin 72 in Idaho City.
SAUNDERS: McFarlane says that while his staff has shrunk by a quarter in recent years and class sizes have grown, he hasn't had to cut programs. Basin still has preschool, sports, music and art. Without this federal forest money, though, McFarlane worries extras like preschool could become a casualty.
MCFARLANE: Without it, it's devastating. I mean, we're going to have to really look at what programs we're going to have to cut or curtail because we don't have the dollars coming any other way that gives us the kind of flexibly those dollars do.
SAUNDERS: From the preschool playground, you can see forest land. Four-year-olds take turns zooming by teacher Rhonda Rice on the shiny blue tricycles.
RHONDA RICE: We've watched children grow up here with preschool and they get such a better start. To have that go away would be really sad.
SAUNDERS: Basin's administrators plan to keep rearranging the pieces of their funding jigsaw puzzle in hopes of maintaining what they've got. Still they hope Congress decides rural schools across the West are worth it. For NPR News, I'm Emilie Ritter Saunders.
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