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In Southern Europe, migrants fleeing poverty, repression and conflict are arriving daily. So far, European leaders have been unable to reach agreement on whether to grant asylum or refugee status to the migrants. Many cross the Mediterranean aboard inadequate and overcrowded vessels. Hundreds have drowned. NPR's Sylvia Poggioli has this report from the Italian city of Catania, where she met a group of recent arrivals.
SYLVIA POGGIOLI, BYLINE: Like other cities in Sicily and southern Italy, Catania has received tens of thousands of migrants over the last several years. Many move on, joining relatives and friends in Northern Europe, but many stay here in limbo - legal and economic. Thirty-five-year-old Hassan Silla is from Sierra Leone. After a two-month wait in Libya, last February he made the sea crossing on a smuggler's boat. As one of 76 migrants on a 12-meter-long inflatable dinghy, Silla knew exactly what the risks were.
HASSAN SILLA: Very dangerous, yeah. You know, it's three options. Either you lose, you win or you draw. It is not easy, but you just have to take it like that.
POGGIOLI: Lawlessness and chaos have gripped Libya, and Silla says sub-Saharan migrants are the most vulnerable. While waiting to make the crossing, he lost his own best friend.
SILLA: They tried to attack him to take his money. He refused. So from there, you know, they put a knife on him. So that is what happened to him.
POGGIOLI: Every morning, Silla joins hundreds of other migrants at the mess hall of the Caritas Help Center run by the Catholic Church. Built in 2007, with the capacity to serve 80 people, volunteers are now distributing 400 to 450 evening meals every day. Thirty-five percent of those who come are local homeless Italians, while 70 percent are migrants, mostly Eritreans, Somalis, Sudanese Senegalese and Gambians. These migrants have decided not to seek asylum in Italy - a long and uncertain process. Twenty-nine-year-old Anousso Koffi is from the Central African Republic.
ANOUSSO KOFFI: (Through interpreter) All I do is wander around the city. I come and go. For four years, I've been sleeping outdoors.
POGGIOLI: Koffi was living in Libya, but he fled in 2011 when civil war broke out. He blames the Europeans for overthrowing the regime of Muammar Gaddafi.
KOFFI: (Through interpreter) It's the Europeans who forced me to come here because when Gaddafi was in power, we had peace and we had work. But now, here I lost everything.
POGGIOLI: Samuel Daniel is from Eritrea, and he's 25 years old. Two years ago, he fled his country, where all men are forced into the army. He went first to Sudan, and from there he reached Libya.
SAMUEL DANIEL: Five months in Libya without work, in one house with 300 persons. We not go another place, we have a war - very, very dangerous; nothing water, nothing food.
POGGIOLI: All they were given, he says, were 10 to 15 loaves of bread once a week for all 300 of them. His smuggler, says Daniel, was an Eritrean, whom he paid $1,500 for the sea crossing.
While we speak, a loud argument breaks out during breakfast in the mess hall between an Italian and a migrant. Mimma Mascena is a psychologist who works here as a volunteer.
MIMMA MASCENA: (Speaking Italian).
POGGIOLI: "There are many jobless Italians," she says, "and this crisis is pitting poor against poor." Like many other aid workers and human rights activists, Mascena is very critical of the European Union's plan to crack down against human trafficking by destroying smugglers' boats in Libya.
MASCENA: (Through interpreter) This is a human tide that cannot be stopped. These migrants know exactly the risks they face in paying smugglers for the sea crossing. But for them, it's worse to stay where they are. Europeans have to start providing legal channels that will allow them to seek asylum here.
POGGIOLI: This is a humanitarian crisis, says Mascena, that cannot be solved by use of force or by leaving these desperate human beings bottled up in Africa and the Middle East. Sylvia Poggioli, NPR News, Catania.
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