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In the 10 years since Hurricane Katrina, New Orleans' flood defenses have improved. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers has nearly completed one of the world's most remarkable hurricane protection systems that encircles the low-lying metropolis. Locals say the Crescent City finally has the storm defenses it should have had before Katrina, which killed hundreds and caused billions in property losses. But as NPR's John Burnett reports, now that they have it, it's time to figure out who pays to keep it up.
JOHN BURNETT, BYLINE: As August 29, 2005 dawned and the great storm moved onshore, one could watch the Mississippi River here, where it curves past the French Quarter, flowing backward. such was the power of the mountain of water moving inland. Levees and floodwalls would burst in more than 50 places. When it was over, the Army Corps of Engineers vowed to build it back better, and they did.
SUSAN MACLAY: The West Bank is astronomically safe. There is no comparison since before Katrina and today.
BURNETT: Susan Maclay is president of the Flood Protection Authority that manages what's called the West Closure Complex. A tugboat named the Layla Renee cruises up the Intercoastal Waterway through a giant concrete and steel structure that's one of the engineering marvels of the new system. During a flood event, a water gate nearly as long as a football field slowly shuts, and 11 behemoth diesel engines kick on to pump water out of Jefferson Parish.
MACLAY: This structure cost approximately $1.1 billion. It consists of the largest pump station in the world. It can fill an Olympic-size swimming pool in three seconds.
BURNETT: The Army Corps of Engineers is spending 14-and-a-half billion dollars on fortifications to protect some 900,000 people living in the toe tip of Louisiana. That's almost as much as a nuclear-powered aircraft carrier. The ring of protection around New Orleans is a vast improvement over the old system of levees and floodwalls that failed catastrophically during Katrina.
In the past decade, they've strengthened 350 miles of hurricane barriers and built massive new floodgates using better construction materials and more advanced computer storm modeling. And they've updated pumping stations that are essential to dewater the city during a flood.
JOHN MONZON: OK, we're walking inside the safe house. The safe house is solid concrete. It is rated for 250 mph wind, whereas the rest of the pump station is rated for 150 mph wind.
BURNETT: The authority's regional director, John Monzon, says the new pump stations have air-conditioned living quarters and enough provisions to last a week. Compare these to the old pump houses that were considered so vulnerable, some workers freaked out and abandoned them when the water rose during Katrina. Ricky Ray was a pump operator with the New Orleans Sewerage and Water Board who stayed at his post, heroically. Here he is, interviewed a few days after the storm.
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RICKY RAY: The first night, the mosquitoes wasn't too bad. The second night, they was bigger. The third night, they was like B-29s in the window, and the water was going septic. I said, we've got to get the hell out of here.
BURNETT: Reportedly, even Dutch engineers, whose seawalls can hold back the Zuiderzee, are awed at what the Army Corps of Engineers has built in southeast Louisiana. We're in a powerboat, skimming along beside the Great Wall of St. Bernard, scaring up white egrets. It's two-mile-long barrier that's supposed to protect the city's eastern flank from Lake Borgne if the water rises.
STEVE ESTOPINAL: I think this surge barrier here was 1.7 billion. It was - it's in Corps dollars, so it's like Monopoly money. The numbers are mind-boggling.
BURNETT: That's Steve Estopinal, the Panama-hat-wearing outgoing president of the Southeast Louisiana Flood Protection Authority - East. He writes historic fiction when he's not worrying about operations and maintenance on his massive new structures. This year, he estimates it will cost about $2 million just to maintain the surge wall, and that doesn't include 200 miles of levees that have to be constantly mowed, inspected and periodically raised because of natural subsidence.
ESTOPINAL: You can't just build it and leave it. If you don't maintain them properly and pay attention to them on a regular basis, they will deteriorate. And then when the storm comes, they will not function.
BURNETT: Now that the flood control system is nearly finished, Washington and Baton Rouge are arm-wrestling over who will pay to maintain it. The Corps has agreed, in theory, to pay for a portion of its upkeep, but most of the cost is supposed to fall to local government. In St. Bernard Parish, voters have twice voted against raising their taxes to pay for better hurricane protection. Estopinal is frustrated.
ESTOPINAL: We're talking about $5 a month to the average taxpayer, all right? That's a six-pack. This is a country that's run by the citizens. The citizens decide they don't want to have flood protection, then we're not going to have flood protection.
BURNETT: He doesn't really mean no flood protection for St. Bernard Parish. He just means, without proper funding, it won't be as effective. Flood protection is a loaded term. The Corps says the current system is designed to withstand a hundred-year hurricane or to significantly reduce flooding from a 500-year storm. The Corps' chief of operations in New Orleans, Mike Park, says they prefer to call it a risk reduction system.
MIKE PARK: We changed that lexicon after Hurricane Katrina because we didn't want the public to be deluded into thinking that they were protected, that they're safe, that once we have a system that was complete, that they were relieved from any risk of flooding.
BURNETT: In the years since the storm, language has become important. Scientific studies have largely laid blame for the failed floodwalls with the corps that designed them. Sandy Rosenthal is the founder and chief agitator of the grassroots group levees.org. She's writing a book titled "Don't Call It Katrina."
SANDY ROSENTHAL: If you open the pages of the book, you never, ever, even once, see the word that starts with a K. And it is my hope that when anyone talks about the flooding of New Orleans, that it's similar to the Titanic. When anyone talks about the Titanic 100 years ago, nobody talks about the iceberg. The iceberg, like a hurricane, exposed human mistakes and human arrogance.
BURNETT: So what should we call it?
ROSENTHAL: The federal flood.
BURNETT: Whatever you call it, do New Orleanians fear another great deluge? Despite the new storm barriers, an NPR-Kaiser Family Foundation poll conducted this year reveals that two-thirds of New Orleans residents are somewhat or very worried that another hurricane will hit the area and cause similar or worse damage than Katrina. Singer Irma Thomas, known as the Soul Queen of New Orleans, would not be among the fearful.
IRMA THOMAS: So why now, in my 70s, should I be that concerned about levees? I mean, life goes on. If you spend all your time worrying about where you live, then you shouldn't live there.
BURNETT: After Katrina, five feet of fetid water sat in Irma Thomas's home in New Orleans East for three weeks, destroying everything. She hopes the new levees hold back the water better than the old levees did. But as she says, it is what it is.
THOMAS: When you move to New Orleans, you know it's below sea level. You know it's like a fishbowl, and you know the possibilities. So you make up your mind that this is where you want to live (laughter).
BURNETT: John Burnett, NPR News, New Orleans.
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