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And now a look at the uneven recovery in New Orleans coming up 10 years since Hurricane Katrina. The failure of the federal levee system after the catastrophic storm left some 80 percent of the city's homes underwater. Entire streets and neighborhoods were obliterated. In some areas, the comeback has been slow - exacerbated by dispersed residents and entrenched poverty. And people who are now back in New Orleans are ready to see the blighted properties go. NPR's Debbie Elliott reports.
DEBBIE ELLIOTT, BYLINE: Angela Chalk lives right in the middle of New Orleans in the 7th Ward. Her house withstood Hurricane Katrina's pounding winds, but not the flood.
ANGELA CHALK: I had six feet of water.
ELLIOTT: It was weeks before the water receded and she was able to return home to a brown, crusty mess.
CHALK: When you walked on it, it was crunching - sounded like you were walking on cornflakes. And it was just caked everywhere.
ELLIOTT: Chalk describes a four-year journey to rebuild her place with financial help from Louisiana's Road Home program. Like a lot of people, she's still fighting with a contractor who took her money and didn't finish the job. But she says there was never a question that she would rebuild the house her grandfather won in a card game in 1942, and here, in the neighborhood where she was raised, just like three generations before her.
CHALK: Yes, we are Creole and yes, we are hard heads. And yes, we will remain here because this is where we choose to be.
ELLIOTT: Now her mission is to help the rest of the neighborhood.
CHALK: It's slow to come back in the inner city. And when I say the inner city, I mean the particular neighborhoods. The CBD looks well. When people see the CBD and they think that we're all healed, we're not.
ELLIOTT: The CBD is the central business district in downtown New Orleans, adjacent to the French corner that visitors are most familiar with. It's now bustling with investment and construction. The picture in the 7th Ward is more bleak. Boarded up homes and weed-covered lots remain 10 years after Katrina. Chalk says three nearby houses collapsed in recent weeks, posing a public health hazard.
CHALK: If you're living next to it, it's a problem.
ELLIOTT: And it's a problem for New Orleans. Officials estimate some 30,000 blighted properties remain citywide. Chalk says it has a ripple effect when people are trying to restore their streets.
CHALK: I can remember one neighbor saying, oh, I'm not worried about that. We don't live there anymore, but somebody does live there (laughter). You know, some people out of sight, out of mind. They try to put Katrina behind them and don't want to ever think about it again. But the decision that they make affects someone.
ELLIOTT: Housing advocates say, in most cases, it's a matter of resources.
FRED JOHNSON: The less money you have, the more you got left out of the recovery.
ELLIOTT: Fred Johnson is CEO of the New Orleans Neighborhood Development Foundation, a group that fosters homeownership.
JOHNSON: But you had a lot of poverty that was stuffed and tucked and rolled. And people knew how to live with it. But Katrina hit and it exposed all of that.
ELLIOTT: He says resiliency can't replace money, so the city's recovery has been uneven. Those who could afford to come back have; others still struggle. And now new people are moving in. Johnson says the dynamic is changing the landscape of traditional neighborhoods.
JOHNSON: Until we can figure out how to get people back, and when I say people, I'm talking about the natives. Now, everybody else is welcome, but damn, don't let everybody else come in and take our parcels of land and then the natives is on the outside looking in. And they're saying, well, I used to live there. My aunt used to live there. Well, my daddy used to live there. Well, we used to.
ELLIOTT: Angela Chalk sees a lot of used to as she drives through her 7th Ward neighborhood pointing out blighted properties. Just around the corner is a wood frame house that hasn't even been cleaned out since Katrina.
CHALK: And you can see - see, there's a sofa that's still in there.
ELLIOTT: On the next block, just about every other house is empty. It's known here as the jack-o'-lantern syndrome - a rebuilt house - teeth. A weedy lot - no teeth. Chalk says a lot of elderly people didn't come back or they passed away and either multiple heirs can't agree on selling or can't be found. She says behind most blight there's a story.
CHALK: Either people are still dealing with insurance companies, the Road Home or they have just moved on, just given up. And you still have people who are still fighting 10 years later to get back home.
ELLIOTT: She rides around taking pictures of the blighted houses that are deteriorating and notifies city officials. Chalk stops in front of a house with thick green vines completely covering the roof. The windows are broken out. The front door is gone. Inside, the floor has been ripped out and weeds are creeping up the cracked plaster walls.
CHALK: It really has to go. I'm afraid this one is going to come down.
ELLIOTT: Knock it down, says Michelle Watkins, who lives next door. Watkins is worried about drug addicts using the rundown house.
MICHELLE WATKINS: It's a problem because me and a neighbor, we get out here and pick up needles and stuff like that off the ground. We all have children on this block underneath the age of 13 so...
ELLIOTT: She's frustrated that it's still here 10 years later. City officials acknowledge that lingering frustration.
DEPUTY MAYOR ANDY KOPPLIN: We've still got a lot of blight. We're by no means done.
ELLIOTT: Deputy Mayor Andy Kopplin says the city of New Orleans is waging an aggressive battle against blight and has made inroads.
KOPPLIN: We've either fixed up or demolished, you know, somewhere between 13,000 and 15,000 units as a city.
ELLIOTT: A poll by NPR and the Kaiser Family Foundation found that a little more than half of the people in New Orleans agree that progress has been made on dealing with destroyed and abandoned homes and other properties. But there's a racial divide when it comes to how people perceive their own neighborhood is faring. A little more than a third of African-Americans say their neighborhood has a major problem with abandoned or destroyed buildings. Only 10 percent of whites say that. Kopplin says the city is trying to clear blighted property through stricter enforcement. And when people don't comply, the city can take them to court and seize the property for auction.
UNIDENTIFIED MAN #1: Ladies and gentlemen, we will begin the sheriff's auction for today.
ELLIOTT: In the courthouse lobby, between the metal detectors and elevators, bidding is brisk at a recent auction for a commercial property seized by the city.
UNIDENTIFIED MAN #2: One hundred seventy-five.
UNIDENTIFIED MAN #3: One hundred seventy-six.
UNIDENTIFIED MAN #2: One hundred seventy-six - 176 - 176.
ELLIOTT: Formerly the St. Daniel's Spiritual Temple, the blighted uptown property is now just concrete steps on an overgrown lot.
UNIDENTIFIED MAN #4: Sold to the gentleman in the rear for $180,000.
ELLIOTT: While the city auctions off blighted property, the New Orleans Redevelopment Authority, or NORA, is trying to drive reinvestment in long-neglected neighborhoods. NORA was created to tackle blight in the 1960s during urban renewal. The agency was faced with a much bigger mission after the flood - 150,000 blighted properties spread all over town. Director Jeff Hebert says that figure is down to about 30,000 now. Despite government and nonprofit initiatives, Hebert says, it's ultimately private-sector money that drives redevelopment. He says there's been a legacy of disinvestment in the inner city here.
JEFF HEBERT: That's a post-Katrina initiative that we move forward with money to really invest in also the commercial side so people have their services that they need, walkability to create sort of that holistic neighborhood.
ELLIOTT: On Broad Street, in the mid-city neighborhood, Lexa Lee is plucking yellow pear tomatoes in a community garden tucked behind a brand-new Whole Foods Market.
LEXA LEE: I walk over here a couple times during the week. And as you can see, I'm drowning in tomatoes. I'm making jam out of them.
ELLIOTT: She's got a plot in the ReFresh Garden, a project funded in part by the New Orleans Redevelopment Authority. Lee was glad to see it on what had been a plot of concrete, graffiti and weeds.
LEE: This neighborhood is - seems like it's particularly hit hard by blight. There are a lot of old, rundown buildings, abandoned buildings, and this was a parking lot for so long with a building on it. But it took a long of time for everything to pull together. And it's just dramatic. I mean, it's just been a center.
ELLIOTT: The Whole Foods opened this past spring - an urban format, touting more affordable groceries than the so-called whole paychecks found in more upscale neighborhoods. Jeff Schwartz is with a nonprofit group trying to revitalize the Broad Street corridor. He says it's good to have a supermarket again in what had remained a food desert long after the storm.
JEFF SCHWARTZ: It was almost a full decade after Katrina that this place finally got back up and running. But yeah, it was a big 65,000-square foot, vacant grocery store for a long time.
ELLIOTT: Beside the market and garden there's a medical teaching kitchen, a children's advocacy center and a cafe that trains at-risk youth. Marlon Schaffer got his start here.
MARLON SCHAFFER: I'm actually from down the street in Iberville, but, you know, they had shut it down and stuff like that and rebuilt it.
ELLIOTT: Schaffer was a 10-year-old kid living in the Iberville housing project when Katrina hit. His family walked to the interstate bridge, like thousands of other Katrina victims, hoping to find shelter. It was too crowded at the Superdome, he says, so they tried the convention center - no room there either.
SCHAFFER: So we just slept outside. My mama had brought a blanket with her. She laid it out. She was like, well, we're going to sleep here. She laid us down and stuff like that. And, you know, she stayed up all night just watching us. We had to jump up in the middle of the night and stuff like that, running, 'cause all you hear was gunshots. You hear crowds running and stuff like that.
ELLIOTT: They lived outside the convention center for a week until the Army evacuated them to Austin, Texas. After about a year there, surviving on a FEMA check, his mother moved them home to New Orleans. But she couldn't find work, he says, so they basically squatted in the abandoned Iberville project for the next year.
SCHAFFER: You know, life - it just really been crazy. Like, we've still been struggling ever since and stuff like that. And, you know, I'm just trying to do better for myself because I'm not that type of person. I'm just trying to get the best for myself.
ELLIOTT: Schaffer had dropped out of school in the ninth grade, but found work at Liberty's Kitchen, the cafe here. And he helped build the ReFresh Community Garden.
SCHAFFER: I actually planted those poppy seeds right there (laughter).
ELLIOTT: It's provided a new start for him. He's working in Atlanta now, but when he's back home for a visit, he comes here for refuge.
SCHAFFER: For some reason, when you come together as one in a garden, like, it's your soul. It's just like your soul relaxing (laughter). It's like you have peace. I'm happy right now standing in the garden.
ELLIOTT: After what they've been through, New Orleanians celebrate each pocket that comes back, no matter how long coming. Debbie Elliott, NPR News, New Orleans.
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