ROBERT SIEGEL, HOST:
Native American students are absent from school at rates higher than any other group in the country. In Wyoming, 1 in 3 Native students are considered chronically absent. Educators on Wyoming's Wind River Indian Reservation say that kids with poor attendance are less likely to graduate. Wyoming Public Radio's Aaron Schrank rode along with one person who's trying to get kids back in school.
AARON SCHRANK, BYLINE: Craig Ferris begins his morning with an unscheduled stop in his black suburban.
CRAIG FERRIS: I usually come - have to come get these guys at least once a week, so...
SCHRANK: Ferris is best known around here as the basketball coach who's led Wyoming Indian High School to four state championships. But he also works for the elementary school as what's called a home-school coordinator. The job seems to be equal parts mailman, social worker and taxi driver.
FERRIS: It's kind of like the truant officer. My job's to make sure the kids who aren't coming to school - find out why and what we need to do to get them to school.
SCHRANK: Third-grader Talissa Cadotte missed the school bus this morning.
TALISSA: My dad forgot to wake me up, so he called this guy.
SCHRANK: Ferris's school district on the Wind River Reservation had the second-lowest attendance rate in Wyoming last year.
FERRIS: It's one of the top things that really plague a kid's development in school 'cause if they're not in school, they're not learning.
All right. Have a good day.
TALISSA: Thanks for the ride.
SCHRANK: Ferris is off to deliver notices to parents whose children have missed too many schooldays. When kids have 5, 10 or 15 unexcused absences, he shows up at their door with a letter. Parents who can't get their kids to school can be charged with educational neglect and face probation and fines.
FERRIS: A lot of parents know they're not sending their kids to school. They know why I'm visiting, so they're not going to answer the door (laughter).
SCHRANK: Still, others are happy to see him, like Rickina Armour.
If he knocks on the door, is it a good thing or a bad thing?
RICKINA ARMOUR: A good thing. He is the best coach we have (laughter).
FERRIS: Everybody knows I coach the high school team, so when I deliver letters, they're always asking me about the boys and the team and how we're going to do this year. And I think that kind of helps me out because most people know who I am.
SCHRANK: Wyoming isn't alone facing this problem. States like Arizona, Montana and North Carolina all see similarly high absentee rates for native students. Cecelia Leong is with Attendance Works, a national initiative to reduce absences.
CECILIA LEONG: Nationally, what we see for native students at fourth grade, 29 percent are chronically absent - eighth grade, 30 percent. That's pretty high.
SCHRANK: Ten percentage points higher than for white students. Those gaps start early. An Attendance Works report found that Native kindergartners missed twice as many days as their white peers. Leong says those gaps in attendance become gaps in achievement.
LEONG: One of the consequences of early chronic absence is ultimately a high dropout rate for students.
SCHRANK: On the Wind River Reservation, where just half of all high school students graduate in four years, coach Craig Ferris is knocking on door to track down some kids who haven't been at school all week.
SCHRANK: He learns they're visiting a family member in the hospital. Ferris says illness is a big reason many of his kids miss school. So is transportation. Another factor is mistrust bred by generations of mistreatment of Native Americans in schools, both public and private.
FERRIS: You really see kind of where people - parents and families - are struggling. And it might not look like they're trying, but they're doing what they can - what's that saying? - doing what they can with what they have. So it's a tough life out here.
SCHRANK: Intervention efforts like these are needed now more than ever. Unlike other student groups, Native Americans have seen little improvement in reading and math scores over the past decade. For NPR News, I'm Aaron Schrank on Wyoming's Wind River Reservation.
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