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The five states that border the Gulf of Mexico are expecting an unprecedented amount of cash, $25 billion. It's due from government fines and court settlements that arose out of the 2010 BP oil spill. Just a fraction of that money has reached states so far. Some, but not all of it, is going to repair the damaged ecosystem. NPR's Debbie Elliott has more.
DEBBIE ELLIOTT, BYLINE: Let's start in Louisiana, where an already fragile and disappearing coastline took a direct hit from the BP disaster. Oil choked off vegetation that is critical to holding together what land is left.
On a barrier island in the Gulf of Mexico, waves slap piles of concrete placed in the surf to slow the water's relentless battery.
JONI TUCK: We are at Fourchon Beach.
ELLIOTT: Joni Tuck is with the Greater Lafourche Port Commission.
TUCK: This is on the Caminada Headlands, which was and has historically been one of the fastest eroding beach headlands in North America.
ELLIOTT: It was down to a narrow strip held together by vegetation.
TUCK: If you looked at it from above, there would've been, like, no sand. It would've just been marsh, mangroves, plants, ocean.
ELLIOTT: The Gulf had cut through the marsh. And just beyond is Port Fourchon, the south Louisiana port responsible for about one-fifth of the nation's oil and gas production. To protect it, the state used $145 million from a criminal settlement stemming from the oil spill. Sand was barged in from offshore to build back 13 miles of beach. Tuck says it's the single largest coastal restoration project ever built in Louisiana, and shows how the billions coming from the BP spill can make a difference.
TUCK: This is the best opportunity to put a down payment on our coast's future that we are ever going to get.
ELLIOTT: Louisiana is in line for biggest share of fines and settlements because it had the most damage in the spill, and continues to. Tar balls still wash up on this barrier island and others. Wildlife and fisheries suffered. The state has a framework for using the money because it already had a long-term restoration plan to combat the coastal erosion crisis. Other states are not so focused.
CYNTHIA SARTHOU: Mississippi and Alabama, in my opinion, are doing the worst.
ELLIOTT: Cynthia Sarthou is director of the Gulf Restoration Network. She says the temptation is to use the money for pet economic projects instead of long-term environmental restoration.
SARTHOU: I mean, I love the environment, but a lot of people live off the environment. And so for us, it's both critical to our way of life and to our economy. And this is an opportunity to do it right.
ELLIOTT: Following the money isn't easy. It's coming from several places. There's the big $20 billion civil settlement between the federal government, states and BP. There were also criminal settlements topping $4 billion. Those deals have more oversight than clean up payments and economic damage claims BP paid directly to states and municipalities. Those monies have been steered to build a baseball stadium in Biloxi, Miss., to plug a $200 million budget hole in Louisiana and to repair the state-owned governor's beach mansion in Alabama. In Florida, counties in the panhandle are worried that the legislature may soon lose their oil spill recovery funds. One project in Alabama is generating the most controversy, a beach lodge at a state park using $58 million set aside to restore natural resources. The beach lodge was not there during the oil spill in 2010, but had been destroyed by hurricane Ivan six years earlier. Overlooking a rare freshwater coastal lake in the Gulf State Park, project director Cooper Shattuck defends the plan.
COOPER SHATTUCK: This is an environmental project.
ELLIOTT: Shattuck says the hotel will compensate for the human use that was lost when tourists stopped coming to the Alabama Gulf Coast because of oiled waters and beaches.
SHATTUCK: And the idea is that we have natural resources for a reason and that's for people to enjoy.
ELLIOTT: Although federal and state agencies signed off on the hotel as a restoration of recreational use, a federal judge has halted the project, ruling in favor of the Gulf Restoration Network in a lawsuit that seeks to force the state to consider alternatives to the hotel. Alabama could appeal. Just as BP struggled to stop its oil gusher six years ago, states now struggle with what it means to make the Gulf Coast whole. Debbie Elliott, NPR News, Orange Beach, Ala.