ARI SHAPIRO, HOST:
We hear a lot about the size of a person's carbon footprint - how much they use electricity, drive a car, fly on airplanes. In India, I recently met some people trying to shrink the carbon footprints of the dead.
BRAJ KISHORE PANDEY: (Singing in foreign language).
SHAPIRO: At least 20 times a day, Braj Kishore Pandey sings this mantra as he lays a human body on a pile of firewood to burn.
PANDEY: (Through interpreter) There's a request from the guard for the freedom, for the release of the soul, and also for the happiness for the family.
SHAPIRO: Pandey operates an open-air crematorium by a riverbank outside of New Delhi. He's wiry, with bright white teeth and a glossy black mustache, and obviously proud of his job. He oversees 40 concrete platforms here. On one, a skeletal shape lies in a pile of smoldering embers. The roof of the skull is broken. That's part of the Hindu cremation ritual.
Another platform has a crowd of about 30 men surrounding a body on a blazing pillar of logs. Each traditional cremation consumes about a thousand pounds of wood. Ashes float like snowflakes through the shimmering heat. Jatan Singh is here to say goodbye to his oldest sister.
Is it important that the fire be a part of that final act?
JATAN SINGH: (Through interpreter) Yes. According to the Hindu religion, without fire it's not possible for the soul to get complete freedom.
SHAPIRO: Off to the side of where his sister's remains are being consumed in fire, there is a towering stockpile of logs that have come in from the countryside. A woman named Chitra Kesarwani would like to propose an alternative.
CHITRA KESARWANI: Everybody's looking for the options how to control pollution.
SHAPIRO: She works for Mokshda Green Cremation, an organization that gives a cleaner, more energy-efficient option to crematoria like this one. But that can be a tough sell.
KESARWANI: Cremation is a, like, ages-old tradition, so making changes in this tradition is a difficult task for us.
SHAPIRO: Outside, two of their green cremation systems sit near the traditional platforms. The wood rests on a metal tray large enough to hold a human. A sort of exhaust hood hangs overhead. Burning a body in one of these uses a third as much wood as the traditional method. It takes two hours instead of three days, and it puts much less smoke into the air. I ask the mourner Jatan Singh, standing next to the new, cleaner system, why he chose the more traditional funeral pyre for his sister.
SINGH: (Through interpreter) The way we did it is for people who have families and relatives. This new system - that's for vagabonds, unidentified bodies.
SHAPIRO: This man shows why education is important, says Chitra Kesarwani.
KESARWANI: This information was not properly transferred to him. He was not...
SHAPIRO: ...But that's the challenge you have to overcome, right?
KESARWANI: Exactly. This is what we are fighting right now (laughter).
SHAPIRO: India is trying to become a highly developed nation without doing as much environmental damage as countries like the U.S. and China did when they made this leap. To succeed, India will have to make huge changes in its energy policy, as well as small-scale changes in the way people go about their daily lives and their deaths. Each day, seven or eight bodies are burned on the green cremation platforms here. Twice as many are burned on the traditional pyres. The new system has earned at least one convert.
PANDEY: (Through interpreter) By using this, people do not even get smoke in their eyes because all the smoke goes in the air.
SHAPIRO: Braj Kishore Pandey breathes easier now. And the man who operates the crematorium says he also appreciates that fewer trees are being cut down.
PANDEY: (Through interpreter) Because if something can be done in a smaller amount, why do we need to spend large amounts?
SHAPIRO: There are fully electric cremation systems that are even cleaner - they don't involve firewood at all. But one step at a time. Centuries-old religious practices don't just transform overnight.
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