DAVID GREENE, HOST:
Marijuana is legal in Colorado as long as you're 21 years old or older. It is still illegal for kids to possess. And so juveniles are coming to dominate the marijuana arrests in Colorado. But another trend has also developed. As Colorado Public Radio's Ben Markus reports, arrest rates have risen dramatically for young blacks and Latinos.
BEN MARKUS, BYLINE: Courtroom 4F in Denver is where most young offenders must explain themselves to a judge. In the hallway, Ricky Montoya didn't look fazed by the judge's order that he pay a $1,000 fine for his third marijuana possession offense, nor was he shocked to learn that police are increasingly citing and arresting Latinos like him.
RICKY MONTOYA: Well, yeah. They probably look at us more different. They probably think - I don't think they think that white people would smoke as much as we do.
MARKUS: In fact, the Colorado Health Department survey found that there wasn't a huge racial difference in who smokes pot. Yet, the arrest rate for white kids is falling while the black and Latino arrest rate is rising. And that was evident at the courthouse where about a dozen cases were heard before noon, and only one involved a white kid.
BRIAN VICENTE: And that needs to stop.
MARKUS: Brian Vicente led the marijuana legalization movement in Colorado.
VICENTE: You know, that is, I think, a large part of the reason Colorado voters passed legalization - is they're tired of the sort of racist legacy of the drug war.
MARKUS: Vicente says it's shameful that local police have shifted their attention to minority kids. But outside Denver Police headquarters, spokesman Sonny Jackson rejects the idea that they're targeting black and Latino kids for pot offenses.
SONNY JACKSON: Most these cases are complaint-driven. We get a complaint from someone. We're not sure where it's going to take us. But we have to act on it. And we're not sure, if I get a call to a residence or to a location, who I'm going to encounter until I get there.
MARKUS: Jackson points out that pot arrests for adults of all racial groups have been cut in half since legalization. And he emphasizes that marijuana is a low priority for the department. Keith Humphreys, who studies drug policy at Stanford, says, in general, police departments don't explicitly target racial groups. But the fact is pot is illegal for kids, so police have to do something when they encounter it.
KEITH HUMPHREYS: And police do patrol more in neighborhoods of color. They also get more calls to respond in neighborhoods of color.
MARKUS: And Humphreys theorizes that the marijuana businesses themselves may be playing a role in who gets arrested.
HUMPHREYS: The emerging legal marijuana industry is overwhelmingly white-owned and white-dominated. And it provides good access to white customers. So one possibility is that that leaves the illegal market disproportionately composed of people of color, both the buyers and the sellers.
MARKUS: That's an issue that touches Wanda James who owns the Simply Pure dispensary in a gentrified neighborhood in Denver. As a black woman, she is an anomaly in the industry. And news that minorities are being arrested at higher rates for marijuana offenses makes her angry.
WANDA JAMES: Because I sit here every day in my dispensary. And you can hear my receptionist speaking now. We're busy. You hear those little bells going off? People are walking in here right now. It's Friday. We are selling a ton of cannabis today.
MARKUS: And most of her customers are white. But she makes sure to point out that this is not just a Colorado or Denver problem.
JAMES: There is not a major city - major city - there is not a major city, small town, rural county, city county, outskirts, beach community that does not have this exact same problem where they're arresting and targeting people of color.
MARKUS: So despite the benefits of legalization, whether it's safe access to pot or increased tax revenue, it hasn't solved the intractable issue of race in America's war on drugs. For NPR News, I'm Ben Markus in Denver.
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