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This year's hurricane season, which is set to peak this month, is expected to be the strongest in four years. Storm waves are the biggest contributors to coastal flooding and damage. And as sea levels rise, waves are expected to travel further inland, threatening areas that were once considered safe. For our series on waves of all types, NPR's Christopher Joyce takes a look at how ocean scientists are trying to predict the uncertain future of storm waves.
CHRISTOPHER JOYCE, BYLINE: This spring, Tropical Storm Colin ripped across the Gulf of Mexico and hit the coast of southwest Florida with 60-mile-an-hour winds. Joe Long ventured out to film it. Long is an oceanographer with the U.S. Geological Survey. His video shows waves rushing up the beach to the foot of a sand dune.
JOE LONG: So water levels are reaching that high. They're eroding the base of that dune and creating this pretty steep face.
JOYCE: Just beyond the dunes, you can see a multi-story condominium.
LONG: If that dune wasn't there, that water would be going on to roadways or hitting the base of those buildings.
JOYCE: When Long goes to the beach, he gets excited about dune toes and scarp formation, which he says bores his kids, but it's helped him design a computer model that predicts something called wave run-up. During storms, wind pushes a mass of water up toward a beach. That's called surge, but on top of that surge, storms create waves that reach even higher. If they're big enough, they'll destroy the dune and wash sand deep in-shore, or they may carry the sand out to sea.
LONG: The model we use is trying to predict the type of coastal change that we would see during a storm.
JOYCE: The model is pretty new, but it predicted the level of wave run-up during Colin to within about eight inches. One reason the Geological Survey has spent years perfecting this model is because the ocean is moving in on us. A warming planet is causing sea levels to rise.
LONG: More storms could impact these protective dunes because sea level's a little higher.
JOYCE: Our coastlines are increasingly threatened, and the survey is trying to predict how and where. Florida is near the top of the list. At the survey's offices in St. Petersburg, I walked downstairs to a dimly lit basement lab to visit biologist Ilsa Kuffner. She's a coral reef expert.
Hey. How're you doing?
ILSA KUFFNER: Hey. This is our lab. Yeah.
JOYCE: Shelves are packed with chunks of coral she's collected. Kuffner's job is to find out what happens to waves before they get to the beaches.
KUFFNER: The main thrust of our project is looking at reefs being barriers to - you know, that are protecting coastlines.
JOYCE: Reefs slow down incoming swells and waves. Problem is warmer ocean temperatures are killing a lot of coral, so the coral beds shrink down away from the sea surface. In effect, the water depth increases.
KUFFNER: There's more water depth, so there's less drag. Like, more wave energy can propagate over the reef, so they're not performing as well as breakwaters.
JOYCE: When waves do reach the shore, their effects depend on a lot of things, like how steep the beach is or how high the dunes are. Florida's west coast, it turns out, is not very sturdy.
HILARY STOCKDON: Well, the Gulf is in a really bad state.
JOYCE: Hilary Stockdon is an oceanographer at the survey. She says beaches and dunes along the Gulf of Mexico are flat and low. Even a small hurricane would do a lot of damage.
STOCKDON: A direct landfall of a Category 1 almost anywhere in the Gulf of Mexico will be - cause significant coastal erosion.
JOYCE: That threatens the wetlands and barrier islands, as well as roads and buildings. The team's computer models factor in sea level rise predictions, and they show lots of places along the East and the Gulf coasts that are increasingly threatened.
STOCKDON: Water is just going to start reaching places where it hasn't reached before. And if people don't consider wave run-up, they're going to miss this important part.
JOYCE: They are weather forecasters and emergency response teams from Maine to Mississippi. Some already are using the model to prepare, and that makes Nathanial Plant happy. Plant is the survey's top oceanographer on this project. He says the goal is to help people prepare, to know where it's going to flood and also where the waves cannot be stopped.
NATHANIAL PLANT: As a nation, we actually have to decide - what areas are we going to invest in to protect? What areas are we going to let go on their own?
JOYCE: In some places, he says, the waves are just going to wind. Christopher Joyce, NPR News.
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