Coffee And Climate Change: In Brazil, A Disaster Is Brewing : The Salt Climate change is threatening the world's coffee, a new report says. In the biggest coffee supplier on the planet, Brazil, rising temperatures are being felt to devastating effect.
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Coffee And Climate Change: In Brazil, A Disaster Is Brewing

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Coffee And Climate Change: In Brazil, A Disaster Is Brewing

Coffee And Climate Change: In Brazil, A Disaster Is Brewing

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AUDIE CORNISH, HOST:

A new report says the world's coffee supply may be in danger due to climate change, and Brazil is the world's largest coffee producing nation. NPR's Lulu Garcia-Navarro reports that the effects of warming temperatures are already being felt on the coffee crop there.

LOURDES GARCIA-NAVARRO, BYLINE: Naygney Assu shows me around his farm. It's tucked on a quiet hillside in Espirito Santo state in eastern Brazil. But when we get to his coffee crop, it becomes a noisy walk.

It's hot. It's dry, and it's windy. And I'm being led over what is a desiccated, dry coffee field. The leaves from the plants are curled up in rust-colored piles, and the plants themselves are completely denuded.

NAYGNEY ASSU: (Speaking Portuguese).

GARCIA-NAVARRO: He says, "we've had no rain since last December. My well dried up. There was nothing we could do except wait for rain."

ASSU: (Speaking Portuguese).

GARCIA-NAVARRO: Rain doesn't come. In fact it's been three years of drought here in San Gabriel da Palha. This region is part of Brazil's coffee belt, and they've been growing Robusta, a coffee bean used in espressos and instant coffee since the 1950s around here. Assu says he doesn't know what he's going to do.

What does the future look like then?

ASSU: (Speaking Portuguese).

GARCIA-NAVARRO: He tells me, "to be honest, I don't see a future. This year I haven't been able to pay my debts. I owe the bank. But look at my crop. I have no way to pay," he says.

He's lost 90 percent of his coffee crop, and he's not alone. Production of Robusta this year is down at least 30 percent in the state so far. Perseu Perdona is an agronomist with the local coffee cooperative.

PERSEU PERDONA: (Speaking Portuguese).

GARCIA-NAVARRO: "Coffee depends on a lot of water," he tells me. Add to that that the plants are also sensitive to temperature. "Climate change is happening," he tells me. "We can see it." Add to that deforestation, which means the ground can't retain water when it rains. He fears in the near future, unless something drastically changes, coffee will disappear from this region.

PERDONA: (Speaking Portuguese).

GARCIA-NAVARRO: "This is affecting the production of Robusta," he tells me - but not just Robusta. A new report from Australia's Climate Institute says coffee production worldwide is in danger because of climate change. It cites a study that says hotter weather and changes in rainfall patterns are projected to cut the area suitable for coffee in half by 2050. This could have a dramatic impact on the communities that depend on coffee production. Perdona tells me families are already going hungry in San Gabriel da Palha.

At the headquarters of a local coffee cooperative, I am offered naturally a cup of coffee made from the beans of local producers.

Antonio Joaquim de Souza Neto is president of Cooabriel. He tells me his family has long roots in the area, and this is the worst drought in at least 80 years, basically since anyone alive can remember.

ANTONIO JOAQUIM DE SOUZA NETO: (Speaking Portuguese).

GARCIA-NAVARRO: "The rivers have even run dry," he says. "Even in the city, we're having water rationing. One day we have water. One day we don't. We never expected this," he says.

SOUZA NETO: (Speaking Portuguese).

GARCIA-NAVARRO: He brings out the records of 17 years of rainfall in the region. He says it used to rain on average 1,300 millimeters a year. In the last three years, that number has plunged to just over 400 millimeters a year.

SOUZA NETO: (Speaking Portuguese).

GARCIA-NAVARRO: He says he went to the capital, Brasilia, to ask for help from the federal government, but none has been forthcoming. So farmers have been taking matters into their own hands.

UNIDENTIFIED WOMAN: (Speaking Portuguese).

ELIEZER JACOB: (Speaking Portuguese).

GARCIA-NAVARRO: We need another coffee farm owner, Eliezer Jacob. He tells me his irrigation pond is at only 10 percent capacity. Coffee is too difficult to maintain because it needs too much water, he says. So he's been diversifying his crops in order to make ends meet.

As his mom throws fertilizer on peppercorn plants, he tells me he's now growing a lot of things - cocoa, rubber, black pepper, pineapple, tomato, coconut, watermelon, banana and even beans. While these crops also rely on water, they provide several harvests a year, meaning a steady income.

JACOB: (Speaking Portuguese).

GARCIA-NAVARRO: "If I hadn't done it, things would have gotten ugly," he says. The bad news for coffee drinkers - he says he and others are moving out of the coffee business for good. Lulu Garcia-Navarro, NPR News.

[POST-BROADCAST CLARIFICATION: The coffee co-operative COOABRIL wanted to make the following clarification after our story came out. They say that their official position is that the drought is being exacerbated by deforestation on the top of the hills, which is stopping the land and wells from absorbing water. They also say Eliezer Jacob, a farmer quoted in our story, is committed to growing coffee in the future, even though at present, most of his land is used for other crops.]

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