TERRY GROSS, HOST:
This is FRESH AIR. The new Italian documentary "Fire At Sea" won top prize at this year's Berlin Film Festival for its look at today's refugee crisis. The newly translated novel These Are The Names won the Dutch equivalent of the Booker Prize for its look at the refugee crisis. Our critic-at-large John Powers says each offers an original way of looking at something it's easy to think you know all about.
JOHN POWERS, BYLINE: If any image haunts TV news and perhaps our conscience, it's the seemingly ceaseless river of migrants seeking refuge from war, dictatorship and poverty. These desperate souls inspire pity, fear and election-year arguments about whether to offer them welcome or keep them out. Not surprisingly, many artists feel compelled to confront this refugee crisis. But the big question is how do you engage a humanitarian tragedy without haranguing the audience or laying on a guilt trip? You get different but complimentary answers and two prize-winning new works from Europe, one an observational documentary, the other a quasi-mythic novel.
Gianfranco Rosi's ravishingly shot "Fire At Sea" takes place on the tiny, unglamorous Sicilian island of Lampedusa 70 miles from the coast of Africa. Year after year, tens of thousands of migrants turn up on disastrously overcrowded boats. So many come that the U.N. has an entire hazmat-suited system for handling them.
They're rescued at sea, cleaned up, photographed, handed gold foil survival blankets and put in holding camps before being shipped to the mainland. Rosi cuts between these newly arrived refugees and an impressionistic look at the islanders for whom another boatload is basically something they hear about on the radio between golden oldies, like the one that gives its film its title.
The newcomers don't affect the locals daily round of cooking, scuba diving or working as fishermen. Yes, there is one heroic doctor who helps the migrants, and he was outraged at the world's apathy. I salute you, Pietro Bartolo, but he's exceptional in every sense.
The island's true exemplar is Samuele, a smart, naughty but decent preteen who practices the slingshot and pulls words out of his tight-lipped relatives like he was their therapist. While Samuele enjoys a happy, stable life, he's not without problems that feel a bit, well, metaphorical. He has a lazy eye that limits his vision and annoying anxiety he can't explain, although maybe we can because we know what's happening in the background of his life. Here, for instance, a radio dispatcher talks to a refugee boat in serious trouble.
(SOUNDBITE OF DOCUMENTARY, "FIRE AT SEA")
UNIDENTIFIED MAN: Please, faster, your position, please, your position.
UNIDENTIFIED WOMAN: 33.1...
UNIDENTIFIED MAN: And then under, under.
UNIDENTIFIED WOMAN: OK, 80.52.
UNIDENTIFIED MAN: How many people on board?
UNIDENTIFIED WOMAN: I think it's about 150 persons.
UNIDENTIFIED MAN: What kind of boat?
UNIDENTIFIED WOMAN: It's between 130 and 150. Please, can you help us very quickly? Yeah, we are sinking. We are staying here in the same coordination. We will not move.
UNIDENTIFIED MAN: Madam, please, calm down because we will plan the rescue, but you need to calm down. OK, so save your battery. I will call you back, OK?
POWERS: Without ever saying it, Rosi suggests that Samuele is like most of the West, which is cut off from the pain caught in that clip. Indeed, even as "Fire At Sea" moves us with the refugees' vulnerability, it shows us how their tragedy has become normalized. It's been so folded into the routine of life in Lampedusa that folks scarcely notice it.
You get a very different approach to the refugee situation in These Are The Names, a taut novel by the acclaimed Dutch writer Tommy Wieringa, which possesses a symbolic sweep that recalls J.M. Coetzee's "Waiting For The Barbarians." Set in the former Soviet empire, the book also interweaves two storyline's, yet Wieringa's point differs from the movie's. One of the stories centers on a boy who joins a small group of migrants traveling to the west from the republics of Central Asia. Abandoned in the middle of nowhere by crooked human traffickers, this ragtag group which includes a poacher, a small-time crook and a defenseless woman begins a grueling dog-eat-dog trek across a no-man's land that's every bit as harsh as Cormac McCarthy's "The Road."
Wieringa juxtaposes their story to that of a strangely named cop, Pontus Beg, a lonely 53-year-old in the imaginary city of Michailopol, who feels that his life and his society have become unmoored. This starts to change when he investigates the death of a local rabbi and uncovers truths about his own origins he never dreamed of. Even as the refugees make their journey across the landscape, Pontus Beg journeys into the past and into his own identity.
Unlike "Fire At Sea," the novel's two different realities intersect. I won't give away what happens, but I will say that unlike Samuele and his fellow islanders, Pontus Beg is pushed out of his comfort zone in a way that opens him up to life. Reading the biblical book of Exodus, the novel's title comes from his opening line. He realizes that these straggling migrants are living out a universal story about a search for the promised land.
Taken together, "Fire At Sea" and "These Are The Names" offers us a two-step course in empathy. Where Rosi suggests we must stop ignoring the refugees' reality and acknowledge their presence as part of our lives, Wieringa reminds us that the refugees' desire to find a safe, nurturing place to call home doesn't make them unspeakably alien. It makes them just like us.
GROSS: John Powers is film and TV critic for Vogue and vogue.com. Tomorrow on FRESH AIR, we'll talk about President-elect Trump's potential conflicts of interest around the world. He's tweeted that he will be taking himself out of his business operations, but is that sufficient to address potential conflicts? My guest will be Eric Lipton, a New York Times investigative reporter who has been investigating Trump's business holdings around the world and the ethical conflicts they could pose. We'll also talk about whether there are regulations that might apply and how Congress could potentially intervene. I hope you'll join us.
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GROSS: FRESH AIR's executive producer is Danny Miller. Our technical director and engineer is Audrey Bentham. Our associate producer for online media is Molly Seavy-Nesper. Roberta Shorrock directs the show. I'm Terry Gross.