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Like other fast-growing cities, Austin, Texas, doesn't have enough affordable housing. It does have short-term rentals advertised on sites like Airbnb and HomeAway. The city began regulating those properties five years ago, and now it's going further, phasing out and banning short-term rentals altogether. Rental property owners and property rights advocates are fighting back. From Austin, NPR's Wade Goodwyn reports.
WADE GOODWYN, BYLINE: Kristen Hotopp stands in the front yard of her well-worn East Austin home where she's lived for the last 17 years. She points across the street to an attractive, nearly new two-story home, by far the nicest on the block.
KRISTEN HOTOPP: There are two units on this lot. There's a house in the back that's smaller and a house up front. We're getting investors descending upon the area and buying up, you know, a lot of these properties. This guy owns four.
GOODWYN: Even though Hotopp's working-class neighborhood is close to Sixth Street and other Austin music districts, she's lived quietly with her husband and young son. But that changed two years ago when the new house across the street turned out to be a short-term rental property. Suddenly the good times on Sixth Street were rolling back to her block at 2 a.m.
HOTOPP: You have large groups of people there screaming in the middle of the night. They're here to party. They bring people back with them to the property when the bars close downtown, and it just becomes kind of an all-night thing.
GOODWYN: The parade of loud, inebriated, door-slamming renters got old quick. Hotopp complained to city officials more than 30 times. Over the last five years, experiences like Hotopp's have become a rallying cry for Austin's well-organized and politically powerful neighborhood associations. David King is the president of the Austin Neighborhoods Council which represents 100 neighborhood associations.
DAVID KING: We believe they're essentially commercial hotels embedded in our residential areas.
GOODWYN: Fifty years ago, Austin was a sleepy college town flowing to the seasonal rhythm of its state university. Now it's an economic and cultural powerhouse and burgeoning tourist destination. Austin's property values and taxes are through the roof. The city's musicians and working class are being priced out.
In 2012, the city council moved to regulate, requiring short-term rental owners to get a permit, pay hotel taxes and limiting density to no more than 3 percent of any given neighborhood. But Mayor Pro Tem Kathie Tovo says these regulations didn't go far enough.
KATHIE TOVO: You know, we have a housing shortage here in Austin. We are working on issues related to affordability. And then to have a policy on the books that takes available housing stock and makes it unavailable for our renters, for our property owners is not in the best interest of Austin residents.
GOODWYN: So last year, Austin City Council voted to ban these so-called Type 2 rentals. Current licensed operators will be phased out, and that's triggered lawsuits and legislative action in response.
ROBERT HENNEKE: We sued because the city ordinance goes too far and tramples on the constitutional rights of our clients who both own and operate short-term rentals and also serve as guests of short-term rental properties.
GOODWYN: Robert Henneke is the director at the Texas Public Policy Foundation, an influential conservative think tank in Austin. Their lawsuit against the city of Austin has been joined by the state of Texas. Henneke says that as suburbia exploded across the nation's landscape in the 1950s, it became almost an American folkway for single-family home owners to disdain renters. If they can't afford to buy, they're not our kind of people. Henneke argues now the attempt to discriminate involves not the renters' color or class but the duration of the rental.
HENNEKE: Occupying a house as a short-term rental is completely consistent as a residential activity and fits within the purpose of single-family residential zoning.
JOEL RASMUSSEN: So this is a duplex that was built in 1970, I believe. And my wife and I fell in love with the kind of mid-century modern style. Come on inside.
GOODWYN: Forty-six-year-old Joel Rasmussen and his wife bought this duplex and the ones next to it in Travis Heights. The hills of South Austin are full of these modest, charming homes. On the outside, there's nothing to distinguish Rasmussen's units from the neighbors, but inside, it's upscale boutique.
RASMUSSEN: Vaulted ceilings, lots of natural light coming in from the outside. People really love this textured wall. It has a very kind of "Jetsons" or, you know, 1960s feel. It's actually recycled bamboo panels.
GOODWYN: The two-bedroom, one-bath is 195 a night, and guests park under the carport, not on the street. Rasmussen says he's never had a complaint, and moreover, the neighbors sometimes put their visitors in his rentals because the homes around here run small.
RASMUSSEN: In fact, the neighbors that live just on the other side of that property have two children. When baby number one was born, mom and dad came and stayed for three weeks. And when baby number two was born, now grandparents came again for three weeks to welcome the grandbabies.
GOODWYN: In Rasmussen's unit next door, an athletic 60-something-year-old woman sits in a T-shirt and gym shorts, reading a book on the wraparound deck in Austin's warm winter sun. Reporters know no scene so tranquil should be left undisturbed, so I barge right in.
KATHY ARENA: My name is Kathy Arena. I am from Cedarburg, Wis.
GOODWYN: For the last three years, Arena and her husband have escaped the frozen tundra to bask for a winter's month in Austin's glow.
ARENA: It's just been so smooth, and we stay in the same place each time. So another thing I like about Austin is all ages comingle. Everyone is so nice to everybody. We've made all sorts of new friends here.
GOODWYN: The battle over whether these types of short-term rental properties should be allowed is being fought in court and the Texas Legislature. A bill has been filed by Republican State Senator Kelly Hancock which would prohibit Texas cities from banning these rentals outright. And as the rulings in state courts have been contradictory, it's likely the Texas Supreme Court will have to have the final word. Wade Goodwyn, NPR News, Austin.
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