STEVE INSKEEP, HOST:
OK, I think David's going to back me up on this. There are days when it feels like this program, which starts very, very early, is basically hosted by a cup of coffee.
DAVID GREENE, HOST:
Yes, not us, a cup of coffee. Although...
INSKEEP: That's all we know.
GREENE: ...It's more important out here in California.
GREENE: We start even earlier. The only thing open when I come to work is 7-Eleven. So I'm holding a 7-Eleven cup of coffee right now...
INSKEEP: OK. So...
GREENE: ...Which is - you're probably doing better on the price tag.
INSKEEP: ...We got a little product placement on...
INSKEEP: ...the program today.
GREENE: Sorry about that.
INSKEEP: Anyway, we're happy to bring you this report on coffee rituals in Italy, where I think some people would die, David, to learn that you're drinking...
INSKEEP: ...7-Eleven coffee. No offense, but it is a cultural mainstay, coffee. And the country - Italy, I mean - is perhaps the drink's spiritual home. It's Italy that's given us the lingo of coffee - espresso, cappuccino, latte. NPR's Sylvia Poggioli invites us to join her for a cup and explore the rituals of coffee drinking in Italy.
SYLVIA POGGIOLI, BYLINE: Drinking coffee is woven into the fabric of Italian culture. Rome is home to thousands of cafes. I'm in the Monti neighborhood at cafe Er Baretto. Owner Marco Eskandar, an Egyptian by birth and longtime Italian resident, reveals the secret of good espresso.
MARCO ESKANDAR: (Speaking Italian).
POGGIOLI: "It's the five M's," says Eskandar, "miscela - blend; macchina - the coffee machine; macinino - the grinder; manutenzione - machine maintenance; and mano - the skill of the barista."
(SOUND OF COFFEE MACHINE)
POGGIOLI: He's also a master of cappuccino, espresso and milk named for the color of the robes of Capuchin monks. While the coffee brews, he twirls a metal pitcher of milk under a spout of steam. When the milk turns frothy, he carefully pours it over the espresso...
ESKANDAR: (Speaking Italian).
POGGIOLI: ...Making it the canvas for a little work of art, a white tulip. According to local custom, I am violating an Italian taboo. It's afternoon, and capuccino is considered a breakfast beverage never, ever to be consumed after late morning. Elizabeth Minchilli, an American who writes about Italian food, wine and culture, says this unwritten law derives from a national obsession with digestion.
ELIZABETH MINCHILLI: I don't think after a meal, you'd have a warm cup of milk. It's pesante. It's heavy.
POGGIOLI: Minchilli often warns Americans that if they order a latte here, all they'll get is a glass of milk. She stresses that Italian coffee culture has much to do with when and where the beverage is consumed.
MINCHILLI: It's always a social occasion - whether it's in the morning or the afternoon or, you know, 6 o'clock in the evening. And there's rituals that go along with them.
POGGIOLI: The most common ritual is drinking coffee standing up at a bar, chatting with the barista. Here in Rome, you'll often hear a person order an espresso or cappuccino served in a glass. Many claim it tastes better than in a porcelain cup. Coffee was introduced to Europe in the 17th century, but it wasn't until the invention of a steam-driven coffee-making machine by an Italian in the late 19th century that Italy gave the world espresso. It's a method to brew finely ground and compacted coffee very fast with very hot water at very high pressure. And it's brewed fresh every time.
MORENO FAINA: So you need an espresso. You ask an espresso, and a barista will serve immediately the espresso just for you.
POGGIOLI: That's Moreno Faina, speaking over Skype. He's the director of the University of Coffee. Yes, Italy is home to the University of Coffee. It's run by the Illy Coffee Company in Trieste and holds courses for baristas, coffee producers and coffee bar managers.
FAINA: In all the other cases, when you ask for a coffee, the coffee has been already prepared, while espresso must be prepared on express order.
POGGIOLI: Other than espresso, there are many varieties to choose from - from caffe macchiato, stained with a swirl of milk, to caffe corretto, an espresso corrected with a shot of grappa or cognac. And for summer, says Minchilli, there are refreshing variations.
MINCHILLI: Shakerato - it's when they put a shot of espresso into, you know, a cocktail shaker with ice and shake it, shake it, shake it, shake it until it gets foamy, and the ice kind of melts and crystallizes. And then they pour it into a goblet. And that's fantastic.
POGGIOLI: Then there's granita di caffe, a frozen mix of coffee, sugar and water usually served with a big dollop of whipped cream on top, which is how Italians turn their beloved espresso even into dessert. Sylvia Poggioli, NPR News, Rome.
(SOUNDBITE OF THE DINING ROOMS' "VERSO IL SOLE")