A MARTINEZ, HOST:
There are few places on Earth where the impact of climate change is more noticeable than along the Great Barrier Reef. It's the planet's largest living organism that now has become the world's largest dying organism. In the past 18 months, rising ocean temperatures have caused the single greatest loss of coral ever recorded along the reef. The die off is devastating for the thousands of species that depend on the reef, including those who are responsible for its decline, humans. NPR's Rob Schmitz reports.
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ROB SCHMITZ, BYLINE: Nearly a hundred miles off the shore of Port Douglas, Australia, tourists jump into the water of the outer reef. On their dive, they see giant clams, sea turtles and a rainbow tropical fish all swimming above brightly colored coral. Back on the boat, marine biologist Lorna Howlett reviews the coral they saw.
LORNA HOWLETT: How many people out there today saw a coral that was highlighter yellow? Yeah. What about highlighter blue? Yeah. Anyone see some hot pinks?
SCHMITZ: Eager hands shoot up among the few dozen tourists lounging on the deck of the boat in their wet suits. Everyone's still smiling from their Technicolor tour of the Great Barrier Reef. Then Howlett breaks the news to them.
HOWLETT: Those are not natural coral colors. That is actually coral that is stressed, OK? So it's got a sniffly nose. It's got a bit of a sore throat.
SCHMITZ: It turns out the neon coral depicted in Pixar's "Finding Nemo" is not normal. It's the first sign coral is dying.
JOHN EDMONDSON: Then you see it getting white.
SCHMITZ: Marine biologist John Edmondson runs Wavelength, the tour operator on the reef. He says the second sign is when coral bleaches and turns white.
EDMONDSON: That's when it's most dramatic-looking. You've got the real visual impact of being white. You don't know if it's going to die or it's going to recover. And then the real impact on people working on the reef is when you then start to see what's recovering and what's dying. And then when you start to see the coral actually dying and getting covered with turfing algae and looking horrible, that is when it really hits home.
SCHMITZ: In the past 18 months, Edmondson has watched as two-thirds of the coral along this 400-mile northern stretch of the Great Barrier Reef has turned white and died. It's left him and thousands of others who work on the reef in a state of shock.
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SCHMITZ: Nearly 300 miles down the coast on a beach in Townsville along the midsection of the reef stands Terry Hughes. He's the director of the Coral Reef Center at James Cook University.
TERRY HUGHES: I did not expect to see a loss of corals to this extent in my lifetime. This has come sooner than we had hoped.
SCHMITZ: That's because oceans have absorbed the heat from the global rise in greenhouse gas emissions. And their waters are now warmer than any time in recorded history. Coral is sensitive to temperature swings. Much like the human body, a rise of several degrees can lead to illness and death. For the past two years, Hughes has led a team of scientists in both aerial and underwater surveys of the reef.
It took a while. The Great Barrier Reef is made up of more than 3,000 individual reefs, as long as the entire West Coast of the United States. Their findings were published in March in the journal Nature. They estimate that an average of one-third of the coral along the entire Great Barrier Reef died between March and November of 2016 due to warmer-than-average water temperatures.
HUGHES: So this was much worse than the biggest cyclones we ever get. And, tragically, it happened again for a second time in a row this year. This year, we expect to see about 20 percent more of the corals die. So close to half of the corals on the Great Barrier Reef have died in a period of about 18 months. So this is the new normal.
SCHMITZ: Hughes is calling on everyone who studies and protects the world's coral reefs to adjust to this new normal. He says coral reef management is always focused on restoring reefs to their condition before the oceans began to warm.
HUGHES: And we argue that that's no longer possible. What we should be aiming for is keeping reefs functional, recognizing that the world is on a conveyor belt. We are going to a new type of coral reef ecosystem. But if we're careful how we do that, we'll still have a functioning ecosystem that will provide benefits to people.
SCHMITZ: But not everyone at the coral reef Center shares Hughes's optimism. Research fellow Jon Brodie used to direct water quality for the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park. He believes it's too late to save the coral. Water temperatures are rising too fast. And he predicts in 30 years, most of it will be gone. The 70-year-old has given his life to the reef. For him, the new normal is hard to swallow.
JON BRODIE: I find it quite difficult with students now. I still have lots of young - youngish, I guess - Ph.D. students and the like. And it wasn't too many years ago when I think I could still inspire them to - this was a great area to work in and make a difference. I find that more difficult now - much more difficult now.
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SCHMITZ: A dismal outlook is hard to see along the waterfront in Cairns, where kids splash in a pool and diving boats sound their horns. The city is the main hub of tourism along the Great Barrier Reef, a $5 billion industry that employs 60,000 people. Many tour operators here take issue with the surveys scientists like Hughes have taken of the reef.
COL MCKENZIE: When they try and pint holistic pictures from a sampling, you don't get the real story.
SCHMITZ: Col McKenzie directs the Association of Marine Park Tourism Operators in Cairns. He questions how accurate these scientific surveys have been. And he thinks the media has run with the numbers, making people think the reef has become the Great Barrier Graveyard.
MCKENZIE: If we were taking tourists out of Cairns to reefs that were destroyed, our business wouldn't survive it for more than a month. We just wouldn't be able to keep doing it. Yet you go and talk to the people coming off these boats. They've had a fantastic time. They've seen what they came here to see.
SCHMITZ: McKenzie maintains there's still a lot of healthy habitat to see, and there will be for years to come. But he's worried about the amount of coral that has died and what it's going to do to the region's bottom line.
MCKENZIE: My guess is that they - that we've seen the end of double-digit growth, that we're probably going to get back into 2 or 3 percent growth instead of the 20 to 30. The big issue is that we've got a lot of money being spent on additional infrastructure here in Cairns, new pontoons, new boats, new hotels going up.
SCHMITZ: And that's why McKenzie thinks rash measures should be taken to save the reef. He proposes installing enormous turbines in the deep ocean surrounding the reef.
MCKENZIE: If you can imagine a massive, big ceiling fan like a turbine - and it's pushing the cold water to the surface.
SCHMITZ: In an email, Terry Hughes called McKenzie's solution one of the most harebrained ideas he's ever heard. He says tackling climate change would be easier.
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SCHMITZ: Caught between the reef scientists and tour operators are the tourists themselves. Seventy percent of them are from outside Australia, like Alan Crabtree (ph) from Bellingham, Wash.
ALAN CRABTREE: One of the reasons we came now is we wanted to see the Barrier Reef before it disappeared. We wanted to take advantage of that.
SCHMITZ: It's the end of a day of snorkeling, and the tourist boat pulls into Port Douglas, where thousands of colorful lorikeets fly between palm trees as the sun sets behind them.
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SCHMITZ: Wavelength Tours owner John Edmondson sits on his boat, talking about how the tourism industry is having a hard time dealing with the reef's loss of coral. Some operators don't mention it to tourists for fear of spoiling a fun day out on the reef. But he's chosen to educate his customers about what's going on and what they can do to prevent climate change.
EDMONDSON: If you've got a fantastic product, but there is a negative aspect of it, how do you deal with that negative aspect? You know, it's best, I think, to explain it because most people are understanding.
SCHMITZ: After all, says Edmondson, this isn't Disneyland. It's the world, our world. Rob Schmitz, NPR News, the Great Barrier Reef.
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