AUDIE CORNISH, HOST:
The claim was extraordinary. In September 2017, the State Department announced that more than 20 U.S. diplomats in Cuba had been injured in a series of deliberate health attacks. A couple of weeks later, President Trump went even further.
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PRESIDENT DONALD TRUMP: I do believe Cuba is responsible. I do believe that. And it's a very unusual attack, as you know. But I do believe Cuba is responsible, yes.
CORNISH: The U.S. responded by pulling most staff from its embassy in Havana. Since then, a number of scientists have stepped forward to challenge claims that the diplomats were attacked. NPR's Jon Hamilton reports on the growing skepticism about what's now known as Havana syndrome.
JON HAMILTON, BYLINE: It started with a sound.
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HAMILTON: Then came the symptoms.
MICHAEL HOFFER: Hearing loss, headaches, dizziness and then some, you know, trouble concentrating, et cetera.
HAMILTON: That's Dr. Michael Hoffer. He's an ear, nose and throat doctor at the University of Miami, and he's played a central role in suggesting that something very bad happened to diplomats and others associated with the U.S. embassy in Cuba. Hoffer's account goes like this. In February of 2017, he was at his desk when the phone rang.
HOFFER: And the individual who I cannot name, unfortunately, said this is the State Department, and we have a problem.
HAMILTON: Hoffer says the individual asked him to assess some ailing diplomats who'd been flown to Miami. Then he says the State Department asked him to check out embassy workers still in Havana.
HOFFER: So a colleague of mine and I went down to Cuba and set up a little screening clinic in the embassy there.
HAMILTON: Hoffer says his team looked at 140 people in total. Twenty-five of them said they had symptoms that appeared after they heard a piercing sound or felt a pressure wave. The symptoms were a lot like those from a concussion, but Hoffer says his experience as a military doctor told him the problem involved the vestibular system, a part of the inner ear that plays a critical role in balance.
HOFFER: I'm confident that their vestibular systems were damaged by something. What it was, who was doing it I don't know.
HAMILTON: Even so, Hoffer and his colleagues were quick to speculate. They said the cause might be a weapon that used sound waves or electromagnetic energy. But then in October of 2017, The Associated Press released a recording of the sound.
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HAMILTON: And that's when the scientific case for an attack began to crumble. A couple of experts on insect sounds analyzed the audio. One of them was Alexander Stubbs, a Ph.D. student at the University of California, Berkeley. He says that sound is no weapon.
ALEXANDER STUBBS: The recording released by the AP is in fact a cricket, and it is a particular species of cricket.
HAMILTON: The male Indies short-tailed cricket. That's the call they make when they're looking for sex. And Stubbs says those crickets are really loud.
STUBBS: If you're driving a diesel truck on the freeway, you can hear these crickets with all the windows closed as you pass one.
HAMILTON: Of course that didn't explain all the symptoms diplomats had, so scientists waited for two medical studies they hoped would make sense of the dizziness, the hearing loss, the foggy thinking. The first study appeared in the Journal of the American Medical Association in early 2018. It came from a team at the University of Pennsylvania who examined 21 diplomats. In an audio report released with the study, Dr. Randel Swanson offered this summary of the findings.
RANDEL SWANSON: We are collectively convinced that these individuals as a group sustained a neurological injury.
HAMILTON: Something like a concussion but with no blow to the head. The reaction from other scientists was swift and harsh. Sergio Della Sala is a professor of human cognitive neuroscience at the University of Edinburgh in the U.K.
SERGIO DELLA SALA: It's surprising. That the fantastic, great journal like JAMA publishes such a poor report is just astounding. It's unbelievable.
HAMILTON: Astounding, unbelievable. And four other scientists who published letters in JAMA offered their own pointed adjectives - improper, inappropriate, problematic, misleading. Della Sala says much of the outrage came because the authors had used a definition of impairment that would apply to nearly half of the general population.
DELLA SALA: What they did was to find a way so that everybody is pathological.
HAMILTON: The second medical study came from the University of Miami's Dr. Hoffer and his colleagues. They described 25 embassy workers who reported symptoms. This study was rejected by JAMA but eventually published in Laryngoscope Investigative Otolaryngology. It's a little-known journal where Hoffer serves as an editor. He says one of the paper's key findings involved special goggles that track eye movements.
HOFFER: So the eye movements, which we can read right away from the goggles, were looking like patterns that we see in people that have a particular balance disorder.
HAMILTON: A balance disorder caused by invisible damage to the inner ear. But Sergio Della Sala and other scientists note that lots of factors can cause a healthy person to fail this test.
DELLA SALA: This task is failed by anybody with anxiety, anybody with concern, anybody who is very tired.
HAMILTON: Della Sala says neither study showed that U.S. diplomats were attacked or even harmed.
DELLA SALA: At the moment, there is no data whatsoever that these people are suffering from any brain injury. There is no evidence.
HAMILTON: In other words - no Havana syndrome. More criticism came last month during a scientific panel held in conjunction with the American Association for the Advancement of Science Meeting. The event took place at the Cuban embassy in Washington, D.C. One of the panelists was Dr. Janina Galler, a professor of psychiatry at Harvard Medical School. She says scientists are frustrated that the published medical studies have omitted critical information.
JANINA GALLER: Our concern is that none of the data was shared. We don't have access to the raw data. We don't have access even to the full sample size and how individuals were selected and why so many were not included in the study at the end of the day.
HAMILTON: Another speaker was Dr. Mitchell Valdes-Sosa, who directs the Cuban Neuroscience Center in Havana. He says the U.S. has had nearly two years to back up its claims of an attack.
MITCHELL VALDES-SOSA: There's a whole story that there's a group of diplomats; they were attacked with a weapon, and they have brain injury. And there's no evidence for brain injury. There's no evidence of an attack.
HAMILTON: Even some scientists who once believed the attack narrative now reject it. Douglas Fields is a brain scientist who spent months investigating the events in Cuba.
DOUGLAS FIELDS: When I first heard about it, I think like everybody, I was concerned. It's terrible - Americans injured. I was very concerned that there was a weapon.
HAMILTON: Fields read the medical studies. He interviewed experts on brain injury and inner ear problems. He even went to Cuba. But he didn't find any evidence to support the claim of an attack.
FIELDS: And then the story keeps changing, keeps changing - not a sonic weapon. Then it's microwaves. And then it's hysteria. And then - you know, then it's an infection and on and on and on.
HAMILTON: Fields says now he thinks Havana syndrome is merely a collection of symptoms and health problems you might see in any group of people and especially people doing a highly stressful job in a sometimes hostile environment. Fields says the truth will emerge eventually.
FIELDS: Science has gone astray, gone off the rails many times but eventually self-corrects, and we get to the right answer. And so does journalism.
HAMILTON: That happened after a similar incident during the Cold War. The story then was that Soviet microwaves were causing cancer and a rare blood condition among staff at the U.S. embassy in Moscow. A large study disproved that claim. The State Department and Dr. Michael Hoffer maintain that an attack did occur in Havana and that the medical evidence supports this. The department says the number of affected embassy workers in Cuba now stands at 26. Some have recovered. Others still have symptoms. Jon Hamilton, NPR News.
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