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Next up - a story about survival and salt. Too much salt can kill you but so can too little. So our brains are constantly monitoring salt intake to make sure we get just the right amount. As NPR's Jon Hamilton reports, two new studies help explain how this system works.
JON HAMILTON, BYLINE: When you're thirsty, a swig of fresh water brings instant relief. But take a big gulp of salty seawater and you'll still feel parched. Zachary Knight of the University of California, San Francisco says that's because your brain is trying to keep the concentration of salt in your body within a very narrow range.
ZACHARY KNIGHT: If you experience, for example, a 10 percent change, you would be very sick and a 20 percent change and you could die.
HAMILTON: Knight says he and a team of researchers wanted to know how the brain keeps that from happening.
KNIGHT: There has to be a mechanism for the brain to track how salty the solutions that you drink are and use that to fine tune thirst, but the mechanism was unknown.
HAMILTON: So Knight's team began studying brain cells known as thirst neurons. Chris Zimmerman, a graduate student, says first they piped fresh water directly into the stomachs of some thirsty mice.
CHRIS ZIMMERMAN: Within a minute or two, infusing water into the stomach rapidly turns off these thirst neurons in the brain. And not only that, if we give it access to water, it doesn't drink at all.
HAMILTON: Then they repeated the experiment with salty water. And this time, the thirst neuron stayed on, and the animals kept searching for a drink. The team also figured out how the system works. Zimmerman says cells in the gut are constantly measuring saltiness and communicating with thirst neurons in the brain.
ZIMMERMAN: What's really exciting about this is not only that we've discovered this new signal from the gut to the brain but also that we found that it has a really specific role in controlling our behavior.
HAMILTON: The study appears in the journal Nature, and it is paired with a second study that also involves salt. Yuki Oka of Caltech was part of a team that looked at brain cells known as sodium appetite neurons in mice.
YUKI OKA: We wanted to know how sodium appetite is regulated by the brain.
HAMILTON: The first thing Oka's team did was use a technique called optogenetics to switch on the sodium appetite neurons. He says the effect was immediate.
OKA: Animal now look around, and then they pick up a piece of rock salt and then start eating it.
HAMILTON: When the team switched off the sodium appetite neurons, the animals stopped eating. But how does this system work without a scientist flipping the switch? Part of the answer involves cells that measure salt concentrations in the bloodstream. That couldn't be the whole answer, though, because animals need only a tiny amount of salt, so they have to stop eating salt long before the concentrations in blood start rising. Oka's team thought there must be a second off switch somewhere, one that could be flipped sooner. And they found it in the animal's taste buds.
OKA: When you put sodium salt on top of the tongue and when you taste it, that's sufficient to suppress sodium appetite neurons.
HAMILTON: And Oka says that's how we know to stop eating salt before we've consumed a harmful dose. Jon Hamilton, NPR News.
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