MARY LOUISE KELLY, HOST:
Let's take a moment this Memorial Day to consider two words - American soil. Politicians are known to evoke those two words to stir patriotic feelings, but here's a fact you may not know - today, nearly 30 million acres of U.S. farmland are held by foreign companies. That's a steep increase from just two decades ago and one that is ringing alarm bells in farming communities. Renee Wilde of member station WYSO reports.
RENEE WILDE, BYLINE: When the stock market tanked during the last recession, foreign investors began buying up big swaths of U.S. farmland. And because there are no federal restrictions on the amount of land that can be foreign owned, it's been left up to individual states to decide on any limitations.
TY HIGGINS: Texas is kind of a free-for-all, so they don't have a limit on how much land can be owned by foreign people. And you look at Iowa, and they restrict it. No land in Iowa is owned by a foreign entity.
WILDE: Ty Higgins is with the Ohio Farm Bureau. Ohio, like Texas, also has no restrictions. And nearly half a million acres of prime farmland are held by foreign-owned entities.
HIGGINS: One of the main reasons that we're watching this issue is because once a foreign entity buys up, you know, however many acres they want, Americans might not ever be able to secure that land again. And so once we lose it, we may lose it for good.
WILDE: Every acre of productive farmland that they convert over is an acre of land that no longer produces food. And since agriculture and food production contribute $20 billion to Ohio's GSP, that loss is felt from the state level all the way down to rural communities.
(SOUNDBITE OF SHEEP BLEATING)
ANGELA HUFFMAN: Here, sheep. Here, sheep. Come on.
WILDE: Angela Huffman is a sixth-generation farmer. This farm in the northern part of the state has been in her family for almost 200 years.
HUFFMAN: Right out my back door here, Chinese-owned Smithfield Foods, the largest pork producer in the world, has recently bought out a couple of grain elevators, basically extracting the wealth out of the community.
WILDE: To be fair, U.S. farmers and corporations also invest in overseas agriculture, owning billions of dollars of farmland from Australia to Brazil. But the Smithfield Food buyout has really raised concerns with American farmers. As part of that 2013 sale, a Chinese company now owns 146,000 acres of prime U.S. farmland.
JOE MAXWELL: The money that those elevators used to make stayed within the community. Today, the money those elevators make will go in the pockets of someone thousands and thousands miles away. This is going on across America.
WILDE: Joe Maxwell is a fourth-generation farmer from Missouri. He and Huffman are part of the Organization for Competitive Markets, an advocacy group of farmers and ranchers across the nation. He says Ohio will continue to see an influx of foreign investment as other states put restrictions in place.
MAXWELL: So when they're looking for investments in the U.S. in agriculture, Ohio is a great ag state. And you don't have any restrictions like other states.
WILDE: In the central part of the state, tractors are busy planting this year's crops. Nationwide, it's Canadian investors who own the most farmland. Here in Ohio, it's Germany, with 71,000 acres. John Trimmer manages 30,000 acres of corn and soybeans for German investors. He's been working with German families who want to get into U.S. agriculture since the '80s.
JOHN TRIMMER: They started to buy land in Iowa and Minnesota. But the right when they started then, they passed state laws which restricted foreign ownership.
WILDE: Instead, they turned to Ohio. But Trimmer says there is a misconception about foreign owners, that they aren't good neighbors or good stewards of the land. What he sees is a growing divide between older family members who still live on the farm and their children who have no interest in the family business and want to cash out the land.
TRIMMER: The last two farms we bought here through an owner, her and her brothers and sisters inherited it from their mother. And none of them wanted to farm. None of them have an interest in farm.
WILDE: With a median age of U.S. farmers at 55, many face retirement with no prospect of family members willing to take over. The National Young Farmers Coalition anticipates that two-thirds of the nation's farmland will change hands in the next few decades. So in states with no restrictions to cap foreign ownership, it's likely that lots more of it will end up in foreign hands. For NPR News, I'm Renee Wilde in Ohio.
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