RACHEL MARTIN, HOST:
The Atlantic hurricane season has started. You may remember what happened last year - Hurricane Michael, the most powerful hurricane ever to hit Florida's Panhandle. It ripped through with winds of 160 miles per hour. Emergency managers definitely have Hurricane Michael top of mind, especially when it comes to the question of evacuations. Here's NPR's Greg Allen.
GREG ALLEN, BYLINE: The night before Michael made landfall, Lynn Haven Mayor Margo Anderson was in the city's administrative building preparing to ride out the storm. The National Hurricane Center warned Michael was strengthening and was now likely to come ashore as a Category 4 storm with winds over 150 miles per hour. She went on Facebook Live with a message for the town's 20,000 residents.
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MARGO ANDERSON: If you are in a house that you don't think will take sustained winds of 100 miles per hour for several hours tomorrow, you still have time to go to a shelter.
ALLEN: As it turned out, Anderson and the other officials in the city's administrative building should have followed that advice.
ANDERSON: This is the hallway where myself and the 40 members of the police department - this is where we ended up at the end of the storm.
ALLEN: She shows me a picture on her cellphone. The roof of the building where they sheltered is gone. Debris is everywhere. Insulation and wires hang down from the ceiling.
ANDERSON: Yeah, solid concrete building. It ripped it away around us. We survived in the last standing hallway. This is what the building looked like when we walked outside.
ALLEN: The brick and concrete building, built in 1928, was now reduced mostly to rubble. Nearly every building in Lynn Haven suffered severe damage. More than 250 homes were completely destroyed. Now, eight months later, Mayor Anderson says, with better information and a bit more time, she would have done things differently.
ANDERSON: Had we known it was going to be a Category 4 before we did, that everyone would have left. If I had known that it would strengthen and we had had that kind of forecast as it came ashore, I would have had my police and fire evacuate as well.
ALLEN: For emergency managers in charge of evacuations, there's a well-worn adage - hide from wind, run from water. That's because the vast majority of deaths in hurricanes are people who drown in flooding, including storm surge. Because of that, as Michael approached the Panama City area, Joby Smith, the chief of emergency management in Bay County, says evacuations were ordered mostly for areas near the water.
JOBY SMITH: Storm surge is what most evacuation models are based on. And we also take into consideration, though, within our walls here, you know, what do the winds look like?
ALLEN: Because of last-minute warnings that Michael might intensify, Bay County increase the areas under mandatory evacuation. A traffic assessment done after the storm suggested just a fifth of the county residents ordered to evacuate actually did so. In Mexico Beach, the community where Michael made landfall, the percentage of those who evacuated was much higher. Only 50 people were known to have been there at landfall. Jay Baker, a researcher and retired Florida State University professor who studies hurricane evacuations, says there's a reason for that.
JAY BAKER: Police went door to door in Mexico Beach. Now, it's a small community. But that is by far the most effective way of disseminating evacuation notices.
ALLEN: Unfortunately, three of those who remained in Mexico Beach died in the storm surge. Elsewhere, several people died after being hit by falling trees or debris. Baker says that's one of Michael's reminders - high winds also kill.
BAKER: I do think that there are a lot of people sort of reassessing whether or not it's advisable to stay behind if you're going to have winds like this. You know, a lot of the damage that was done wasn't to wind just blowing houses away. It was blowing big trees down onto houses.
ALLEN: Two people died during the storm in Jackson County, a rural area more than 40 miles from the coast with just 50,000 residents. Mandatory evacuation was ordered for people who live in mobile homes, which is almost a third of the county. But the director of emergency management in Jackson County, Rodney Andreasen, says even those who lived in permanent wood or stone structures weren't safe.
RODNEY ANDREASEN: We saw a lot of the older buildings, brick buildings in town, that collapsed and were destroyed. Some others were heavily damaged just from the wind collapsing. The building next to us, it just came apart. And it impacted our building. It punched holes in some of our metal siding.
ALLEN: The fact is, Andreasen says, buildings on Florida's Panhandle simply aren't designed for winds like those seen in Hurricane Michael.
ANDREASEN: I think it's woke up a lot of people to that fact. And we're going to start seeing a lot of things change because of that.
ALLEN: Among those likely changes - how people prepare for storms, how many evacuate and how strong new construction on Florida's Panhandle will need to be to survive hurricanes like Michael. Greg Allen, NPR News, Lynn Haven, Fla.
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