Jerusalem's 'Rosa Parks' Fights 'Modesty Patrols' Writer Naomi Ragen and other women of Jerusalem go to court against Jewish fundamentalists who they say have harassed, taunted and even physically assaulted women on public buses. In ultra-Orthodox neighborhoods, some men try to force women to sit in the back of buses and make them abstain from wearing immodest clothing.
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Jerusalem's 'Rosa Parks' Fights 'Modesty Patrols'

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Jerusalem's 'Rosa Parks' Fights 'Modesty Patrols'

Jerusalem's 'Rosa Parks' Fights 'Modesty Patrols'

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NPR's Eric Westervelt has our story.

ERIC WESTERVELT: Writer Naomi Ragen says she didn't want to start a revolution from her bus seat or become the Jewish Rosa Parks. She just wanted to get home. An observant Orthodox Jew, Ragen was on the number 40 bus line back to her house near Jerusalem when an ultra-Orthodox or Haredi man told her to move to the back.

NAOMI RAGEN: I was astonished. And I said to him, look, I'm not bothering anybody. You don't have to look at me, you don't have to sit next to me. But as long as this is a public bus, I will sit where I please. Thank you very much.

WESTERVELT: But the harassment grew worse, Ragen says, at every stop. Soon, an even more aggressive bearded ultra-Orthodox man got in and commanded her to move. He was about 300 pounds and hovered over her like a sumo wrester, she says. His long black frock and wide hat in her face.

RAGEN: He started screaming and yelling in abusive language and on no uncertain terms told me that I had to move to the back of the bus or else. My reaction to that was to look at him in the eye and to say to him, look, you show me in the code of Jewish law where it's written that I'm not allowed to sit in this seat and I will move. Until then, get out of my face.

WESTERVELT: Naomi Ragen may have been the Haredi's worst target. The feisty 57- year-old New York born novelist and feminist has now signed on to a new legal challenge to de facto gender segregation on more than 30 public bus lines in Israel and the restrictions randomly enforced by men and self-styled modesty patrols.

RAGEN: I call this the Taliban lines. You know, they can call it whatever they want, but that to me is what they are. They are the Taliban lines, and there's no reason that we should have them in Israel. I think it's important that women have taken a stand, that we've gone to the Supreme Court with this and we've said, you know, we're angry and we're not going to take it anymore.


WESTERVELT: In December, a Canadian Orthodox Jew was on a non-Haredi bus line on route to the Western Wall, Judaism's holiest site, when she was assaulted by an ultra- Orthodox man for refusing to move to the back of the bus. She has signed on to the lawsuit.

ORLY EREZ: She was physically hurt. She was beaten very hard.

WESTERVELT: Lawyer Erez-Likhovski says the suit doesn't aim to shut the bus lines down, but to have them regulated and reformed or to have an equal number of non-Haredi lines added.

EREZ: The ministry's - basically - attitude is it's none of our business. But, you know, it is exactly our business to supervise the public bus companies, and this is what the ministry has failed to do over the past years.

WESTERVELT: Writer Naomi Ragen sees these moves as merely more attempts to control women - what she calls the Talibanization of Judaism by the Haredi.

RAGEN: I think it's shocking. We have more and more streets with signs on them which say only women dressed modestly can walk through our streets. All of a sudden, our streets are being taken over. And then you say, well, okay, what's the next step? People don't want to stand on the same line in the supermarket. Maybe we'll have separate sides of the street. And, you know, right after that come the veils. I mean...

WESTERVELT: But opponents call the lawsuit an attack on Haredi religious values and culture. Israeli educator and writer Shira Leibowitz Schmidt is with the Haredi College for Women. She says that gender segregation is a natural attempt by the ultra-orthodox to combat what they see as secular Israel's growing permissiveness and the eroticization of public spaces.

SHIRA LEIBOWITZ SCHMIDT: Today in Israel, women go around sometimes as if they were on the beach. It's really very undignified and it's erotically stimulating and it's also just distracting. That's a form of coercion. I call that non-religious coercion. I call that coercion of eroticism. That's a, I think, a much more serious problem - the creeping degradation of the public square.

WESTERVELT: Eric Westervelt, NPR News, Jerusalem.

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