How The Trump Administration Uses 'Workarounds' To Reshape Legal Immigration The White House wanted sweeping changes on legal immigration. Congress didn't bite. Now critics say the administration is using "backdoor" rules and regulations to keep low-income immigrants out.
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How The Trump Administration Uses 'Workarounds' To Reshape Legal Immigration

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How The Trump Administration Uses 'Workarounds' To Reshape Legal Immigration

How The Trump Administration Uses 'Workarounds' To Reshape Legal Immigration

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MARY LOUISE KELLY, HOST:

Go way back to the days before Donald Trump was President Trump and he was promising to keep out certain immigrants.

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PRESIDENT DONALD TRUMP: They're sending people that have lots of problems, and they're bringing those problems with us.

KELLY: That's from 2015. Well, four years later, Congress has not gone along with most of President Trump's proposed changes, so instead, the president and his administration have issued new regulations, executive orders, proclamations - all aimed at reshaping legal immigration into the United States. NPR's Joel Rose is here in the studio to talk about how the administration has been successful in using what they call workarounds.

Hey, Joel.

JOEL ROSE, BYLINE: Hey, Mary Louise.

KELLY: Let me start by setting the stage because it does seem as though almost every day it's - every time you turn around, there's some new immigration twist making headlines. It can be hard to keep track. So start with - what's the latest twist? Where do things stand?

ROSE: Well, I want to talk about one specific Trump administration proposal that has not gotten a whole lot of attention in this torrent of immigration news that you mentioned. This proposal is targeting a program that gives out visas by lottery. This is something President Trump loves to hate, and it has actually become kind of one of the greatest hits at his rallies.

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TRUMP: What kind of a system is that? They come in by a lottery.

The country puts the name in the basket, and you pick people out of the lottery. They're giving us their worst people, and so would you, and so would I.

ROSE: There is a lot in the president's descriptions of this program that is misleading or just plain wrong. It is called the Diversity Visa Lottery, but it is not entirely random. All of the immigrants are carefully vetted before they're allowed into the U.S. The Trump administration has been trying to get rid of this diversity visa but cannot get Congress to go along with that because these tend to be well-educated immigrants from countries that historically have not gotten a lot of visas to come to the U.S.

KELLY: OK. This prompts a question - if the president can't get Congress to go along with this, how is the president planning to (laughter) get his way on the Diversity Visa Program?

ROSE: So the Trump administration has gone through the State Department, which issued a rule back in June that said in order to even apply for this Diversity Visa Lottery, you have to have a passport. The Trump administration says this is in order to prevent fraud. But immigrant advocates say it is just a way to discourage poor immigrants from developing countries from even applying. I talked to Amaha Kassa. He's the executive director of a group called African Communities Together. This is a nonprofit that helps immigrants from Africa and is suing to block this rule.

AMAHA KASSA: One of the plaintiffs on this lawsuit, he is a mechanic in a small town in Ethiopia. And in order to go to the place where he can apply for a passport, he has to take three different buses. It's going to take him a full day to travel there. And the fees for acquiring a passport might be as much as a week's wages for him. That is a huge burden.

KELLY: All right. So, Joel Rose, that is one view there on the Diversity Visa Lottery, which you're pointing to as the latest twist. But put this - the latest twist in what? I mean, what is the larger pattern that you are seeing as you report on immigration?

ROSE: Well, if you talk to Kassa and to other immigrant advocates, they would say this is part of a bigger pattern, that the Trump administration is trying to use rules and regulations to make pretty sweeping changes to the legal immigration system through the back door, changes that it could not get from Congress, which of course has been gridlocked on this issue for years.

KELLY: Right. If I'm recalling - Republicans used to complain back when it was President Obama in the White House, saying he was trying to get things done - make decisions on immigration without having input from Congress.

ROSE: Well, right. This administration, very much like the last one, has gotten tired of waiting for Congress. Ken Cuccinelli talked about this recently. He is the acting director of U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services.

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KEN CUCCINELLI: We start all these discussions with the assumption of the law not changing, which is a sad place to start a discussion. I mean, the right way to decide policy is for Congress and the president to decide policy. That's the way the government was set up.

ROSE: So Cuccinelli is essentially complaining here that the administration feels stuck. And he also said in that interview that the administration has very little time, really, before the end of President Trump's first term and that, quote, "time is our opponent," unquote. So Cuccinelli says they're doing what they can without Congress.

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CUCCINELLI: We talk about what amount to workarounds to that. Of course, they have to be within the boundaries of the law.

KELLY: Joel we heard that word there - workarounds. Give me some more examples of what kind of things we're seeing.

ROSE: So you can go, really, down the list of what the White House wanted from Congress back in 2018, when they were calling them the pillars of immigration reform. Let's take them sort of one by one. One of them was ending the Diversity Visa Lottery, which we've already talked about; they want to tighten the rules for applicants. No. 2 - they wanted border security - build the wall.

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TRUMP: (Chanting) Build that wall. Build that wall. Build that wall.

ROSE: No. 3 was a shift to a so-called merit-based immigration system and away from our current system that gives priority to family members of the immigrants who are already here, what critics would disparage as chain migration.

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TRUMP: And how about chain migration? How about that? Somebody comes in. He brings his mother and his father and his...

ROSE: And pillar No. 4 was a path to citizenship for DACA recipients, the so-called Dreamers. Except for DACA, the administration has been trying to get all of these things done without help from Congress.

KELLY: Right. And that's what I'm still trying to get my head around. How do you do all this without Congress either changing the law or coughing up money for this stuff?

ROSE: Well, on the border wall, the White House did not get the money they wanted from Congress, but instead they are trying to take money out of the Pentagon's budget. When it comes to reshaping legal immigration, the administration has been busy on a lot of fronts. Just last week, they issued a proclamation that will make it harder to get a visa, unless you can prove that you can pay for your own medical expenses once you're in the U.S.

There's also this so-called public charge rule, which would make it harder for immigrants to get green cards if they use a whole range of public benefits - things like food stamps. That is set to take effect next week. And Ken Cuccinelli, who we just heard from a moment ago, defended the public charge rule on Morning Edition over the summer by revising the poem at the base of the Statue of Liberty.

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CUCCINELLI: Give me your tired and your poor who can stand on their own two feet and who will not become a public charge.

KELLY: Your tired and your poor who can stand on their own two feet. I remember when that aired, and it caused this uproar with people saying, hang on - is that Cuccinelli not just rewriting the poem but perhaps opening the door to rewriting how we define ourselves as a nation of immigrants? Is that what this administration is trying to do?

ROSE: Well, the president has denied that.

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TRUMP: I love immigrants. This country is based on immigrants.

ROSE: The Trump administration would say that it is just following the law here. The idea that immigrants have to be self-sufficient has been in various U.S. laws for a long time.

KELLY: Right. But those laws, as we've noted, haven't changed for the most part. So what is happening - the administration is interpreting them in new and novel ways?

ROSE: For sure. They are taking a much more restrictive approach than past administrations. And immigrant advocates say that's part of their broader strategy. Here's Amaha Kassa with African Communities Together again.

KASSA: This administration is trying to keep out lower-income immigrants. They're trying to keep out anyone who doesn't fit with their particular vision of who's American, and they're doing it by selling a myth, a lie, that people are criminals or that they're dependent when the reality is these are exactly the types of immigrants and their families who've helped build America.

ROSE: They think he's trying to keep out immigrants from the Caribbean and African countries and that his administration is using these rules and regulations to make that happen.

KELLY: That prompts our last question - is it working? Are we seeing fewer immigrants from those countries?

ROSE: We are definitely seeing dramatic reductions in the number of refugees. The administration has cut the number of refugees it will allow in next year to just 18,000, which is the lowest level in decades. But for many of these policies, we likely won't know how they affect the number of immigrants coming into the country or where they're coming from for months, maybe even years.

KELLY: NPR's Joel Rose reporting there on a little bit of what's going on behind all of the immigration headlines.

Thank you, Joel.

ROSE: You're welcome.

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