ROBERT SIEGEL, Host:
From NPR News, this is ALL THINGS CONSIDERED. I'm Robert Siegel.
MELISSA BLOCK, Host:
As NPR's Frank Langfitt reports, South Sudan is now trying to protect them and build a tourism business from scratch.
FRANK LANGFITT: Paul Elkan returns to his bush camp in South Sudan's Boma National Park one recent morning, carrying a radio-tracking collar. He found it lying in the savanna, about five miles away. It's cut clean through, the edges chewed up by a knife, the antelope that wore it - long dead.
D: The animal was shot, this tiang. And then the hunters cut the collar off and obviously they were cutting little pieces on each side - maybe they were trying to find gold or something. They didn't know what they had.
LANGFITT: How common is it for some of the animals you collared actually to get shot?
D: We've had a couple of tiang lost to hunters. We have couple of kob lost to hunters, and a few elephant as well.
LANGFITT: After more than 20 years of war, most wildlife in South Sudan was thought to be dead. But in aerial surveys a few years back, Elkan and his team found an estimated 5,000 elephants and more than a million antelope.
D: You have one of the last great intact wildernesses in Africa, and then you have the world's second-largest land mammal migration.
LANGFITT: If only the government here can keep it going. The war left South Sudan awash in AK-47s. Relative peace and new roads have made it easier for poachers to find game. South Sudan does have park rangers, but they're undermanned and often outgunned.
BLOCK: Our force is not able to contain the poaching because it is over a vast area - our parks are very large.
LANGFITT: Minnisona Peter's head of Wildlife Management for South Sudan. He says the worst poachers are members of the national army.
BLOCK: The soldiers contributed a big amount; I would say 60 percent.
LANGFITT: Peter says some soldiers poach animals to sell to South Sudan's growing commercial bush meat market, others kill to feed their families. Peter tried to arrest a soldier once, on his own.
BLOCK: He was just coming from the bush with his meat on his head and a gun on his shoulder. So I was asking why do you do this? He just threatened. He said I should not disturb him because I've not been paid money - so that is the only way they can live - do I want to kill him with hunger?
LANGFITT: Jonathan Wright runs Wildplaces Africa, a tour company in neighboring Uganda. He sees potential in South Sudan. But first, he says, the government has to fence off areas to protect the surviving animals so they can breed.
BLOCK: For example, say you're talking about a species like tiang or topi, or tweti(ph), and anything between 30 or 40 animals into that area where they can live normally and are protected against cats and poachers. And gradually, as those populations breed up, you start releasing into the wild the captive population.
LANGFITT: Wright points out that Boma National Park is close to Ethiopia and nowhere near the volatile North-South border, and the main conflict around Boma is cattle raiding.
BLOCK: The people are generally nomadic cattle-herders. Really, their main interest is not being rebels and charging around. It's actually they have lives are like normal people. So I've never really found that these people are very difficult to deal with, unless you have a cow.
LANGFITT: Wright is applying to the government of South Sudan to run high-end tours. And he says five groups have already asked to go.
BLOCK: We would put seasonal camps for three months, four months whilst the migration is going through. We would want to bring in horse riding into it; so again, it's always a great way to get around a savanna habitat.
LANGFITT: Ambitious for a region that has almost no infrastructure, but Wright says that's the appeal and marketing pitch to adventure travelers.
BLOCK: You know, that pure sense of Africa - vast spaces and wilderness. You know, the Africa before Karen Blixen came. Sudan still has that.
LANGFITT: Daniel Wani is South Sudan's undersecretary for wildlife, conservation and tourism.
BLOCK: As much as we are maybe fortunate to have the oil wealth, the oil wealth may not be there for life. But these animals will be there for life, if we manage them well.
LANGFITT: Frank Langfitt, NPR News.
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