GUY RAZ, HOST:
Now to Zimbabwe where the state controls most news outlets and independent journalists are routinely arrested for criticizing the government. Three years ago, the government agreed to loosen its tight grip on the media, but the reforms have never been implemented.
And as Anders Kelto reports from the capital Harare, the situation has only gotten worse.
ANDERS KELTO, BYLINE: When you turn on the morning news in Zimbabwe or the afternoon news or the evening news, there's a good chance you'll hear this.
(SOUNDBITE OF MUSIC)
KELTO: It's a song by the Zimbabwean group Born Free Crew, featuring a voice-over from none other than President Robert Mugabe.
(SOUNDBITE OF MUSIC)
KELTO: He's talking about Zimbabwe's colonization by the British and how his ZANU PF party led the country to freedom. The jingle airs constantly on the Zimbabwe Broadcast Company, a station run by the state's Ministry of Information. In fact, it's the only television station in Zimbabwe.
ANDY MOYSE: It's actually not journalism, it's propaganda. I mean, it's straightforward propaganda.
KELTO: Andy Moyse is the director of the Media Monitoring Project of Zimbabwe, an NGO based in Harare. He says that according to the 2009 agreement, the government is supposed to be opening the airwaves, but he says almost nothing has changed. The government hasn't granted any new broadcast licenses to radio or television stations, and only a handful of nongovernment print publications have sprung up. [POST-BROADCAST CORRECTION: The Zimbabwe government issued two new radio licenses last year, to organizations with close ties to President Robert Mugabe's ruling party.]
(SOUNDBITE OF PRINTING PRESS)
KELTO: Across town, printing presses churn out copies of NewsDay, Zimbabwe's largest independent newspaper. It's one of the few publications to have appeared since 2009. NewsDay's editor, Constantine Chimakure, says they aim to be the country's most objective paper.
CONSTANTINE CHIMAKURE: We are not pro-government, we are not anti-government. We try to maintain a balance, to give real facts without spinning them.
KELTO: NewsDay's circulation numbers are not made public. Chimakure says that from a financial standpoint, things are going relatively well. But he says advertising revenue is thin in Zimbabwe, and it's hard to get people to spend a dollar on a newspaper when so many are struggling to survive.
CHIMAKURE: With a dollar, you can buy two loaves of bread.
KELTO: Now, with elections on the horizon, Chimakure says the government has begun cracking down on journalists. He was recently charged with undermining the authority of the president for publishing a story about Mugabe's health, and is awaiting trial. Many fellow journalists are facing similar charges, and Chimakure expects the situation to worsen.
CHIMAKURE: They will be assaulted. They will be harassed when they try to go and do their professional job in the rural areas.
JAMES CHIDAKWA: (Foreign language spoken)
KELTO: In Seke, a rural community 40 miles outside Harare, James Chidakwa and his father eat roasted nuts and cornmeal inside of a small brick hut. They're farmers who rely heavily on maize and chickens to survive. James says that like many, his family refuses to listen to government TV or radio broadcasts.
CHIDAKWA: They always lie to the people. Everything what they say is a lie.
KELTO: So at 6 o'clock most evenings, they turn on a battery-powered, shortwave radio and tune in to a so-called pirate radio station.
(SOUNDBITE OF RADIO SHOW)
KELTO: James says Shortwave Radio Africa and Voice of America are their favorites.
CHIDAKWA: If you want to hear the truth, wait for the end of the day to listen to Shortwave Radio Africa, to listen to VOA.
KELTO: The stations, which are based in the U.S. and the U.K., send their signals through radio towers in countries that border Zimbabwe. That means Zimbabwean officials, who claim these broadcasts are illegal, have little recourse. In the past, they've confiscated shortwave radios. James says that forces some people to listen undercover.
CHIDAKWA: Some of them, they will take the radios into their bedrooms and, low volume, they listen to the news. And - but the truth is that there's fear in them.
KELTO: But for James and his father, the risk of being harassed is far outweighed by the risk of not knowing what's happening in Zimbabwe. For NPR News, I'm Anders Kelto.
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