A Damned Dam On The Penobscot River Conservation groups, Native Americans and Maine's power company fought over the fate of the Penobscot River for 13 years. They finally reached an agreement that should preserve hydropower while improving the river's environmental and recreational offerings.

A Damned Dam On The Penobscot River

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From Kansas to Maine now and the restoration of a mighty river. The Penobscot once carried logs from the Great North Woods. It powered paper and sawmills, and it served as a lifeline for the Penobscot Indian Nation. Now, the state will remove the first of two dams along that river. It's an effort to restore sea-run fish without decreasing hydropower. Here's Susan Sharon of Maine Public Radio with more.

SUSAN SHARON, BYLINE: Like most members of the Penobscot Nation, Scott Phillips grew up near the Penobscot River and learned to paddle and fish as a young boy. He took to it like a duck to water, became a competitive racer and eventually opened his own business selling canoes, kayaks and other outdoor gear. Taking out two dams could help improve his sales.

SCOTT PHILLIPS: There's going to be more people that are going to want to get into canoeing or kayaking or even rafting because once we take those dams out, you're going to go from basically two small lake-type features to a free-flowing river again, and it's going to be nice.

SHARON: Paddling a stretch of calm water, Phillips says members of his tribe have long opposed the labyrinth of dams that block Atlantic salmon from their native spawning grounds. By the end of next year, a 35-mile section of river is expected to be clear.

PHILLIPS: It's the traveling route my Penobscot ancestors used to get to the ocean for centuries, and so I'm very excited to retrace those steps.

SHARON: Conservation groups are also cheering the move. For centuries, the Penobscot has been relied on for industrial uses. Former Inland Fisheries and Wildlife Commissioner Bucky Owen is a fly fisherman who's hopeful nearly a dozen fish species will be restored, along with the river's ecological health.

BUCKY OWEN: Well, I've been involved in conservation for over 40 years here in Maine, but this is the number one project, I think, that I will have been or will be involved in, the most significant.

SHARON: A coalition of conservation groups collaborated with industry, the tribe and government officials to make the project happen. They were parties that had previously fought protracted court battles over hydro development and fish passage. Black Bear Hydro spokesman Scott Hall was one of the first people to agree to negotiation.

SCOTT HALL: The benefit to us, relatively early on, was very clear, and that was that there was a better way to do business.

SHARON: In exchange for removal of two outdated, inefficient dams and installing better fish passage at a third, Hall's company was allowed to boost energy production at other facilities along the river. The complicated process has taken 13 years.

HALL: We had a number of occasions where the emotions were very high. But to everybody's credit, you know, somebody was able to step in each time and say, OK, wait a minute. We're making progress here. There's a bigger end to this.

GOVERNOR PAUL LEPAGE: It's irresponsible for our state or our country to be taking out hydro dams at this time.

SHARON: Maine Governor Paul LePage is one of the few critics of the historic project. LePage says more dams should be built as a way to lower energy costs. And he'll skip Monday's planned celebration to mark the Penobscot's rebirth with the demolition of the Great Works Dam. For NPR News, I'm Susan Sharon.

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