Elie Wiesel, Holocaust Survivor And Nobel Peace Prize Laureate, Dies At 87 : The Two-Way After surviving the Nazi death camps, Wiesel advocated on behalf of victims of hate and persecution around the world. He died Saturday at the age of 87.

Elie Wiesel, Holocaust Survivor And Nobel Laureate, Dies At 87

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Elie Wiesel, Holocaust survivor, Nobel Peace laureate and the author of more than 50 books, has died. He was 87. Wiesel survived World War II in the Nazi death camps of Auschwitz and Buchenwald. Years after the war, he settled in the United States. As NPR's Carrie Kahn reports, Wiesel advocated on behalf of victims of hate and persecution around the world.

CARRIE KAHN, BYLINE: Elie Wiesel has been called many things during his life - a messenger of peace, a humanitarian, a survivor. He liked to call himself simply a witness. And as a witness, he said it was his duty to never let those who suffered be forgotten.


ELIE WIESEL: To forget the victims mean to kill them a second time, so I couldn't prevent their first death. I surely must be capable of saving them from a second death.

KAHN: Wiesel spoke out for victims of war and political tyranny around the world. But it was his advocacy on behalf of his fellow Holocaust survivors that was the work of his life. When he was just 15, his family was taken from their small town in Romania to the Nazi death camp Auschwitz and later Buchenwald.


WIESEL: Men to the left. Women to the right. Eight words spoken quietly, indifferently, without emotion.

KAHN: His younger sister and mother were sent immediately to the gas chambers. Wiesel's father died shortly before the camp was liberated by U.S. soldiers in 1945. It took Wiesel 10 years before he could write about his experience in his most famous book, "Night." This is a recording he made during a trip back to Auschwitz with Oprah Winfrey in 2006.


WIESEL: Never shall I forget that night, the first night in camp, that turned my life into one long night. Never shall I forget the small faces of the children, whose bodies I saw transformed into smoke under a silent sky. Never shall I forget those flames that consumed my faith forever, those moments that murdered my God and my soul and turned my dreams to ashes, never.

KAHN: Wiesel lived in France immediately after the war and worked as a journalist before immigrating to the U.S. in 1956. He became a citizen seven years later. And in 1985, he received one of the highest honors awarded a civilian - the Congressional Gold Medal. But as customary, the soft-spoken Wiesel took advantage of the highly public occasion. He made an impassioned plea to then-President Ronald Reagan not to visit a cemetery where SS soldiers were buried.


WIESEL: If it's possible at all, I implore you to do something else, to find a way, to find another way, another site. That place, Mr. President, is not your place. Your place is with the victims of the SS.

KAHN: A year later, Wiesel received the Nobel Peace Prize. The Norwegian Committee called Wiesel a messenger to mankind, a man, who they said, climbed from utter humiliation to become one of our most important spiritual leaders and guides. In his acceptance speech, Wiesel said the world should never remain silent while humans suffer, for neutrality, he said, only aids the oppressor, never the victim.


WIESEL: Silence encourages the tormentor, never the tormented. Sometimes we must intercede. When human lives are in danger, when human dignity is in jeopardy, national borders and sensitivities become irrelevant.

KAHN: Despite all the accolades and honors, Wiesel said he was happiest in his role as a teacher. He taught at several U.S. institutions, including New York City University, several decades at Boston University, and most recently, an annual visit to the Chapman College in Orange County, Calif.


UNIDENTIFIED WOMAN: I wanted to thank you for meeting with us today of all days.

KAHN: Wiesel sat in front of a rapt group of religious studies students in the college's small Holocaust remembrance library. Most asked him questions about Judaism and his public struggles with faith during difficult times.


WIESEL: I still have questions for God. And I still have problems with God, absolutely, but it is within faith, not outside faith and surely not opposed to faith.

KAHN: Later that day, Wiesel told me he felt privileged to receive such warm welcomes and so many honors.


WIESEL: The honors are very, very pleasant to receive, but it all depends what you do with them. If simply to use them for your own benefit, then you're not worthy of it.

KAHN: In his later years, Wiesel refused to slow down even after quintuple bypass surgery and the loss of his personal and philanthropic foundations' fortune to Bernie Madoff's Ponzi scheme.

In 2012, he wrote his last book, "Open Heart," touching on both experiences. But Wiesel said his greatest role in life was as a witness, and he found great comfort among those like himself who witnessed the Holocaust. He said he worried who would be its last witness, who would have that burden.


WIESEL: But to listen to a witness is to become a witness, and that consoles us.

KAHN: And it consoled him, he said, to know that many have listened, and there are many more generations of witnesses ready to stand guard against tyranny and hate long after he is gone. Carrie Kahn, NPR News.

[POST-BROADCAST CORRECTION: In an earlier Web version of this story, we incorrectly stated that Elie Wiesel received the Congressional Medal of Honor. In fact, he received the Congressional Gold Medal of Achievement.Additionally, the audio version, as did a previous Web version, incorrectly identfies Buchenwald as a death camp. In fact, it was a concentration camp.]

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