MELISSA BLOCK, BYLINE: And finally this hour, some of the latest efforts at cultural diplomacy. It's a tactic that goes back to the 1950s, when President Eisenhower sent trumpeter Dizzy Gillespie to the Middle East. The musical tour was a hit, and it began an era of cultural exchange. But for the most part, that exchange was heavy on the export side, with Americans traveling to foreign countries. Well, now, the State Department is in the midst of a new effort to bring international artists here. Lara Pellegrinelli tells us more.
LARA PELLEGRINELLI, BYLINE: It's early on a Tuesday evening, and over a thousand people have crowded into the Kennedy Center's grand foyer to hear the rock band Noori.
(SOUNDBITE OF KENNEDY CENTER CONCERT)
ALI NOOR: It feels like our first concert - ever - in our lives. I'm so nervous.
PELLEGRINELLI: In a lot of ways, it's a typical band. The charismatic guitarist and bass player are brothers. The drummer, naturally, grew up worshipping Neil Peart of Rush. They've broken up and gotten back together, leaving fans to debate whether or not the new material lives up to the old hits.
(SOUNDBITE OF MUSIC)
PELLEGRINELLI: But Noori comes from Pakistan.
(SOUNDBITE OF MUSIC)
PELLEGRINELLI: The band was invited to tour the U.S. by the Department of State, as part of Center Stage, an initiative that brings international artists to Main Street America. Assistant Secretary of State Ann Stock is in charge of the program.
ANN STOCK: Pakistan and the United States are countries that are in the news every single day. But this allows citizens to see Pakistan and the United States in a whole different light. They see it through people-to-people connections.
PELLEGRINELLI: In its first year, Center Stage will present 10 different groups - from Pakistan, Haiti and Indonesia - in 60 American cities across 22 states. Bringing international performers here is a significant departure from the State Department's long history of sending U.S. musicians abroad. It sent Dave Brubeck to 18 different countries. He created a musical about the tour, starring Louis Armstrong.
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PELLEGRINELLI: Jazz, with its roots in the black working class, was the perfect vehicle for exporting American ideals during the Cold War. It served President Eisenhower and his secretary of state well, as they competed with the Soviet Union for hearts and minds across Africa, Asia and the Middle East, where nations were newly liberated from their colonial masters. Penny von Eschen is the author of "Satchmo Blows Up the World," a history of the State Department jazz tours.
PENNY VON ESCHEN: Eisenhower, John Foster Dulles - this generation of diplomats understood very well that race discrimination in America was America's Achilles' heel. The Soviets could easily and truthfully point to the Jim Crow laws, the discrimination against African-Americans within the United States. In these tours, it became very important for the United States to promote black American artists.
PELLEGRINELLI: Eisenhower's programs started with a $5 million appropriation. The cost of Center Stage is almost 2 million; more than a third of that is privately funded. Like their Cold War counterparts, Center Stage musicians, dancers, theater troupes and puppeteers have been chosen strategically; in this case, to reach younger audiences.
(SOUNDBITE OF BELO SONG)
PELLEGRINELLI: BelO is a Haitian singer-songwriter known for his socially conscious lyrics; and Jogja Hip Hop Foundation raps about modern urban life in Indonesia.
(SOUNDBITE OF JOGJA HIP HOP FOUNDATION RAP SONG)
PELLEGRINELLI: Not only are the groups trying to open U.S. ears, they're sending a message back home. While tens of thousands of Americans saw a Pakistani band - Noori - on its U.S. tour, Assistant Secretary Stock points out that hundreds of thousands of fans have liked them on Facebook.
STOCK: So they really gave their fans - not just here, but in Pakistan - a virtual tour of the United States. It was really, quite stunning.
PELLEGRINELLI: That's a substantial audience of young Pakistanis learning about the U.S. from their fellow citizens. But can posts and tweets and pics of performers' travels really advance American policies there? Author Penny von Eschen doesn't think so.
VON ESCHEN: With the virulent anti-Americanism and outrage over the drone strikes and the killing of civilians, I simply don't see that sending musicians abroad is going to temper that criticism, in any way. And I don't think there's any historical evidence that that's happened in the past.
PELLEGRINELLI: The guitarist for Noori, Ali Noor, turned down previous offers to play in the U.S. He knew it would be difficult to reach beyond the Pakistani expatriate community. But this tour did that.
NOOR: And what I realized was that they have a very different view of Pakistan, and we had a very different view of America. It needs to change. In fact, the purpose of this trip and, I think, getting a chance to meet people, is just to tell them that hey, this is nothing like the way you're - watching in the news. It's nothing like that.
PELLEGRINELLI: That's the kind of exchange the State Department is hoping for. For NPR News, I'm Lara Pellegrinelli in New York.
(SOUNDBITE OF NOORI CONCERT AT KENNEDY CENTER)
NOOR: Thank you, U.S. of A. We love you! Thank you very much!
UNIDENTIFIED BAND MEMBER: ...very much.
BLOCK: You're listening to ALL THINGS CONSIDERED, from NPR News.
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