Preserving Balanchine's Ballet Legacy, 30 Years Later Legendary choreographer George Balanchine's work came to define ballet for much of the 20th century. He died in 1983, but his work survived thanks to his disciples who have taken his dances to ballet companies around the world.
NPR logo

Preserving Balanchine's Ballet Legacy, 30 Years Later

  • Download
  • <iframe src="" width="100%" height="290" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" title="NPR embedded audio player">
  • Transcript
Preserving Balanchine's Ballet Legacy, 30 Years Later

Preserving Balanchine's Ballet Legacy, 30 Years Later

  • Download
  • <iframe src="" width="100%" height="290" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" title="NPR embedded audio player">
  • Transcript


It's been 30 years since the legendary Russian choreographer George Balanchine died. His work with the New York City Ballet came to define ballet for much of the 20th century. His legacy still looms large at dance companies around the world. But the number of ballet dancers who worked directly with Balanchine is dwindling.

Marcie Sillman, of member station KUOW, spoke with two dancers who are working to carry on his tradition.

MARCIE SILLMAN, BYLINE: Francia Russell hasn't performed in 50 years, but she says as soon as she hears the music for George Balanchine's "Concerto Barocco..."


SILLMAN: ...her body starts to move.

FRANCIA RUSSELL: I could do it in my sleep, you know, get up and sleepwalk and do it.

SILLMAN: Which makes Russell the perfect person to teach eight young women in sweaty leotards and tights.

RUSSELL: Sophie, keep your back straight and your neck.

SILLMAN: On a gray afternoon, they watched intently as Russell demonstrated how they should extend their arms.

RUSSELL: Down. Yeah, little late at the end...

SILLMAN: Francia Russell joined George Balanchine's company in 1956. Russell says she picked up steps quickly, so Balanchine sometimes used her when he was making new dances.

RUSSELL: And the more you work with him, of course, those dancers who worked with him a lot understood very quickly what he wanted. It wasn't just a physical thing in the studio. Our minds were working all the time. They had to be. And that, he loved that. He loved smart dancers. He also loved some beautiful girls who were dumber than posts. For a guinea pig to choreograph on, he really liked intelligence.

SILLMAN: Balanchine used her to create "Agon," one of his most significant and long-lived ballets. But Russell didn't feel she had what it took to be a great ballerina. So, she left New York City Ballet in 1962. Balanchine called her back two years later.

RUSSELL: He offered me the job of assistant ballet mistress. But he said, but you have to dance.

SILLMAN: Although Balanchine wanted her to perform, Russell focused on learning every one of his ballets so she could help teach them to company members. These were the pre-videotape days, so Russell documented every dance by hand in its own spiral-bound notebook.

RUSSELL: I wrote this probably when I was ballet mistress.

SILLMAN: Russell pulls out the "Concerto Barocco" notes she made from memory 50 years ago.

RUSSELL: I didn't need to ask so much with this ballet. With some ballets, I had to go around and pester dancers. They would see me coming and run 'cause I was always asking questions: Show me what you did right here.

SILLMAN: On one page, Russell drew little stick figures that show how the dancers are positioned onstage throughout the performance. On the facing page, she wrote down every step of the ballet. Russell brought the notebooks with her to Seattle in 1977, when she and her husband, Kent Stowell, took over artistic leadership of Pacific Northwest Ballet. And she still prefers the notebooks to videotapes.

RUSSELL: So many people look at the video, and the dancers are quick, and they're smart, and they learn it from the video. But I think the process of transmitting what the choreographer wanted is so important. And in ballet, it's so personal that to lose that and just rely on videotape, it doesn't seem real to me. You know, for instance, those of us who actually worked with Balanchine, to learn from a videotape is not the same as learning from us who were in the studio with him.

SILLMAN: Pacific Northwest Ballet's Lindsi Dec has learned many Balanchine roles from Russell.

LINDSI DEC: I definitely think that she has an incredible passion and love for all of those ballets. There's something in every single one of them that is special to her. Because of that, it translates to us. And so then we want to have that passion, and we want to do it as best as we can. Do it justice.

SILLMAN: In 1989, Francia Russell went to Leningrad to reintroduce Kirov Ballet dancers to Balanchine's work. As soon as she got there, she realized they knew nothing about their countryman.

RUSSELL: And I said, OK, for this rehearsal, we're going to sit and talk. And I told them everything I could about Balanchine; about his life, and what he'd accomplished, and what he wanted from his ballets. They didn't know, and it made a complete difference.

SILLMAN: Now, Russia's major ballet companies regularly perform Balanchine's work, as do most ballet troupes. But they're starting to learn it from a new group of teachers.

PETER BOAL: You have a generation that's starting to stage Balanchine that never saw him, never met him.

SILLMAN: That's former New York City Ballet principal dancer Peter Boal.

BOAL: I really trained to be a classical ballet dancer to work with him. He founded a special class my final two years in the school. He came to it five times a year to watch it; he gave us corrections. I just wanted to dance for Balanchine. That was what I wanted to do. And then he was gone the day that I joined the company.

SILLMAN: April 30, 1983, the George Balanchine died, Boal joined New York City Ballet as a member of the corps de ballet. He went on to perform more than 60 Balanchine works there before taking over the reins at Pacific Northwest Ballet from Francia Russell and her husband. Although Boal didn't work with Russell during her tenure in New York, he learned from dancers like her, and he promises to carry on that tradition as a tribute to Balanchine.

BOAL: He said my ballets are like butterflies - beautiful today, and one day they'll be gone. But I hope he's wrong. Not on my watch.

SILLMAN: Francia Russell feels much the same way, but at some point she'll finally stop staging Balanchine's work, and it's not clear who will replace her. The Balanchine Trust controls the rights to these dances, but it has no formal program to train people to stage them. The trust relies on Russell's generation to do that work. But she's not sure Balanchine would approve of everything she's done.

RUSSELL: Although he said go do your own thing, dear, you know, he really wanted to put his stamp on it.

SILLMAN: Russell hopes that stamp is still obvious 30 years after Balanchine's death. For NPR News, I'm Marcie Sillman in Seattle.

Copyright © 2013 NPR. All rights reserved. Visit our website terms of use and permissions pages at for further information.

NPR transcripts are created on a rush deadline by Verb8tm, Inc., an NPR contractor, and produced using a proprietary transcription process developed with NPR. This text may not be in its final form and may be updated or revised in the future. Accuracy and availability may vary. The authoritative record of NPR’s programming is the audio record.