The Harlem Hellfighters: Fighting Racism In The Trenches Of WWI : Code Switch The Harlem Hellfighters broke barriers as the first African-American infantry unit to fight in World War I. Their story is retold in a new graphic novel written by Max Brooks, author of World War Z.

The Harlem Hellfighters: Fighting Racism In The Trenches Of WWI

  • Download
  • <iframe src="" width="100%" height="290" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" title="NPR embedded audio player">
  • Transcript


From NPR News, this is ALL THINGS CONSIDERED. I'm Robert Siegel.


And I'm Melissa Block.

Zombie fiction fans know him best for "World War Z." The latest work from Max Brooks is out today. It's a graphic novel that tells a story from a real World War, the first one. The book focuses on the first African-American infantry unit to fight in World War I.

NPR's Hansi Lo Wang tells us about the Harlem Hellfighters.


HANSI LO WANG, BYLINE: The Harlem Hellfighters arrived in France on New Year's Day in 1918. More than a year later, the African-American regiment returned home one of the most decorated American units of World War I.


WANG: This is a post-war recording of the regimental band. Their syncopated stylings introduced French listeners to American jazz. As soldiers, the Harlem Hellfighters left their mark in the trenches of France.

MAX BROOKS: The French called them the Men of Bronze out of respect, and the Germans called them the Harlem Hellfighters out of fear.

WANG: That was Max Brooks.

COL. REGINALD SANDERS: We did not give ourselves our name. Our enemies gave us our name, which - that is a honor.

WANG: And that was Colonel Reginald Sanders. He's the commander of the 369th Sustainment Brigade, the descendant of the original World War I unit.

SANDERS: Max, how are you?

BROOKS: Nice to meet you, sir.

SANDERS: Nice to meet you, too.

WANG: The three of us met recently in New York's Harlem neighborhood at the 369th Regiment Armory, where you can find reminders of the unit's history of fighting on the front lines in France and in the U.S. Their first battle was during training camp in Spartanburg, South Carolina, in October of 1917, weeks after the arrival of another African-American unit sparked a race riot in Houston.

BROOKS: So what, a powder keg. I mean, the whole nation was keyed up for another race riot, and you're sending northern black troops to train in South Carolina.

SANDERS: The heart of it.

BROOKS: The heart of it. The first state to secede from the Union.

WANG: Tense and heated standoffs arose between black soldiers and white residents. But in the end, the Hellfighters left town peacefully.

BROOKS: What separates a soldier from a civilian is discipline, the notion of mental control and the notion of restraint. And I don't think any soldier, short of a samurai, has shown more restraint than the Hellfighters at Spartanburg.

WANG: Their training prepared them for combat but racial segregation in the U.S. Army kept them from marching to the front lines in France. Instead, they, along with other African-American soldiers, were put to work unloading ships.

BROOKS: They did not think African-Americans had the intelligence to think clearly.

SANDERS: Or the courage.

BROOKS: Or the courage.

SANDERS: And that's the important point because what happened is their first battle, the - actually, the French - you know, even though everything was going well for training, they still had doubts.

WANG: The French army absorbed the Hellfighters to help replenish their own ranks, finally giving them the opportunity to fight that the U.S. Army denied them. The French were not disappointed.

BROOKS: They were shocked at how willing the Americans were to charge into the face of death.

WANG: To be men of bronze.

BROOKS: To be men of bronze, yeah. I mean, we're talking about a unit - everybody had so much to prove on every level. The soldiers had to prove their courage. The officers had to prove their intelligence and their courage. There really was the weight of the world on all their shoulders.


WANG: Melville Miller was 16 when he joined the Harlem Hellfighters. Two years later, the unit - also known as the 15th New York National Guard Regiment - was awarded French Croix de Guerre medals for their bravery. Decades later, Miller could still recall marching through formerly German-occupied territory as he recounted in the 1977 documentary "Men of Bronze."


WANG: So what did happen when they came home successful, with the Croix de Guerre?

BROOKS: Well, they came home to some of the worst racial violence in American history, the Red Summer of 1919.

WANG: The Harlem Hellfighters helped win the war in Europe after serving 191 days under enemy fire. They were welcomed home with a parade along Fifth Avenue. But the cheering didn't last for long. As the narrator of Max Brooks' "The Harlem Hellfighters" says, it'd be a nice story if I could say that our parade or even our victories changed the world overnight. But truth's got an ugly way of killing nice stories. Hansi Lo Wang, NPR News.

Copyright © 2014 NPR. All rights reserved. Visit our website terms of use and permissions pages at for further information.

NPR transcripts are created on a rush deadline by an NPR contractor. This text may not be in its final form and may be updated or revised in the future. Accuracy and availability may vary. The authoritative record of NPR’s programming is the audio record.