RACHEL MARTIN, HOST:
Advocacy groups tend to seek the same things - money, media coverage and government action. In the U.K., many of these groups look with envy on the success of one particular cause. It's the effort to end female genital mutilation, known as FGM. The U.K. is far ahead of the United States on this issue.
NPR's Ari Shapiro reports from London on how the national dialogue in Britain changed so dramatically so fast and a warning to listeners - this story includes some graphic descriptions.
ARI SHAPIRO, BYLINE: Nimco Ali is a stylish 30-year-old born and raised in the U.K. Her parents are from Somalia. Ali spent years as an activist fighting to stop female genital mutilation before she finally decided to reveal that she herself is a survivor. Even then, she wasn't totally ready to step out of the shadows. She had seen what happened to other women who spoke out.
NIMCO ALI: They were just completely ostracized.
SHAPIRO: So when she did an interview with London's Evening Standard newspaper two years ago, she told the whole story - how her parents took her to Djibouti in East Africa for the most extreme form of the procedure, but in an almost comical effort to preserve some anonymity, Nimco Ali changed the C in her name to a K and for the photo shoot, she wore a hat.
ALI: That article came out on a Tuesday and I'm thinking, oh that's fine. Like, you know, it's only in the Evening Standard. It's like - it's going to go into bins and that's fine.
SHAPIRO: And besides, you wore a hat.
ALI: Yeah, I wore a hat but he zoomed into my face and it was like - so you can actually - it's like, the stupidest picture ever. And we always say that the campaign around FGM started with a hat.
SHAPIRO: The newspaper did not just go into trash bins. That night Ali's phone lit up with text messages from angry relatives. One said, I knew you were crazy, but I didn't know you were this crazy.
ALI: You've just embarrassed yourself. I text him back and I said, well, why don't you cut off your penis and then text me back? 'Cause it was very much about - this was something - that's what I was talking about.
SHAPIRO: Female genital mutilation is common in parts of Sub-Saharan Africa. Specific practices vary, but it can involve the entire removal of a woman's external sexual organs. Immigrants may bring the practice with them to western countries, but until recently, the U.K. tended to treat FGM as a practice from a foreign culture that did not demand attention. Then it became clear that a lot of young British girls from immigrant backgrounds were being taken to Africa over school vacations to be cut. Nimco Ali's newspaper interview did more than attract the wrath of her cousins. It also attracted the attention of British society.
ALI: It just snowballed.
SHAPIRO: Anna Davis is the education correspondent at the Evening Standard. I met her in the lobby of the newspaper's bustling headquarters.
ANNA DAVIS: Without those women bravely talking about what they'd been through, we couldn't - the story may have died out.
SHAPIRO: Davis has worked at the Evening Standard for eight years. When she started there was hardly any mention of FGM at all, in her paper or others.
DAVIS: Now a week doesn't go by without there being a story in it so it's been a dramatic change.
SHAPIRO: The change goes far beyond media attention, it extends to the police. This year brought the first-ever prosecution for FGM. Detective Gerry Campbell explains the law prohibiting the practice has been on the books since 1985 and now...
GERRY CAMPBELL: Two people - a doctor and a FGM survivor's husband will be going on trial in January next year.
SHAPIRO: This change also extends to the medical profession. Janet Fyle is with the Royal College of Midwives in London.
JANET FYLE: I thought, I have been there when people didn't talk about men who beat their spouses. And we've changed that so this was the second thing that we're going to change.
SHAPIRO: Last month British doctors started tracking FGM cases for the first time. The British Education Department is now training teachers on how to recognize kids who may be at risk. In short, society here has completely transformed its approach across the board.
SHELBY QUAST: There's a conception that this happened overnight and really, it's been going on for 20 to 30 years.
SHAPIRO: Shelby Quast is policy director for Equality Now, one of the groups that has done the most to change the British approach to FGM. She says this issue burst into public consciousness only after decades of laying the groundwork. And this is one area where the West actually followed Africa's lead.
QUAST: We didn't make up this way of doing things, but Burkina Faso led that in Africa, of saying, we need to have education, we need to have law, we need to have health care, we need to have everybody together to come to a solution to actually change this.
SHAPIRO: In 2011, the African Union asked the U.N. to pass a global resolution calling for an end to FGM. That had a huge impact, says Quast.
QUAST: We often heard an argument that this is something that the West cares about; it's a cultural practice in Africa. But in reality, it was these African governments, civil society, individuals, calling for an end to FGM.
SHAPIRO: The cultural change in Britain has been so dramatic it even reached the highest levels of government. In July, the U.K. hosted an international Girl Summit, where Prime Minister David Cameron committed to ending FGM.
(SOUNDBITE OF ARCHIVED RECORDING)
PRIME MINISTER DAVID CAMERON: These practices are just simply a violation of girls' rights.
SHAPIRO: Survivor Nimco Ali remembers listening to that speech and thinking oh, my God.
ALI: The prime minister's talking about keeping vaginas perfect and I thought, this is what we need to do, about empowering young women.
SHAPIRO: And she says in that moment, the verbal abuse she took from her relatives for speaking out was worth it. Now these activists have their sights set on getting the United States to catch up with Britain. In Washington, an interagency government group on FGM has its first meeting tomorrow.
Ari Shapiro, NPR News, London.
NPR transcripts are created on a rush deadline by an NPR contractor. This text may not be in its final form and may be updated or revised in the future. Accuracy and availability may vary. The authoritative record of NPR’s programming is the audio record.