ARI SHAPIRO, HOST:
When Jack Kerouac's "On The Road" was first published in 1957, no one had ever seen anything quite like it. Here's Kerouac reading an excerpt from the book a few months after it came out.
(SOUNDBITE OF ARCHIVED RECORDING)
JACK KEROUAC: (Reading) Out we jumped in the warm, mad night, hearing a wild tenorman's bawling horn across the way going, ee-yah(ph), ee-yah (ph), and hands clapping to the beat and folks yelling go, go, go.
SHAPIRO: That stream of consciousness style that Kerouac made famous owes a huge debt to a letter written by his friend Neal Cassady. Among Kerouac scholars and fans it became known as the Joan Anderson letter. It was missing for 65 years. And NPR's Lynn Neary reports it has now been found and will go on auction next month.
LYNN NEARY, BYLINE: Joe Maddalena, CEO of the auction house Profiles in History, first heard of the letter about a year ago, when a colleague told him about what she called the greatest literary discovery of the 21st century
JOE MADDALENA: And she said the Joan Anderson letter. I consider myself a pretty smart guy - well-read, well-educated. And I'm like Joan Anderson - it's not Mark Twain or Herman Melville or Charles Dickens. I'm like who the heck is Joan Anderson?
NEARY: Joan Anderson was a woman Neal Cassady spent a wild weekend with back in 1950. He wrote about it to his friend Jack Kerouac in an 18-page, single-spaced, stream-of-consciousness letter.
JERRY CIMINO: Well, in the Beat world, we've always referred to the Joan Anderson letter as the holy grail of the Beat Generation.
NEARY: Jerry Cimino is the founding director of the Beat Museum in San Francisco. Cimino says this is the letter that led Jack Kerouac to completely change his writing style.
CIMINO: Prior to this, Kerouac had been writing in a relatively standard fashion for that time. And when he got this letter from Neal, he literally looked at it and it just knocked his socks off. He said, wow, look at how Neal is writing. It's so spontaneous. It's so confessional. And Jack Kerouac adapted that style from Neal Cassady's letter and used it in the writing of his brand new novel, which was called "On The Road," which of course became his best-seller.
NEARY: There were many theories about what happened to the letter. As it turns out, it was in a dead-end file in a publishing company called Golden Goose. Joe Maddalena says the owner of that company gave some of his literary archives to a neighbor, whose daughter found those papers among her father's things after he died.
MADDALENA: She's looking for insurance papers, documents. She has no idea what she's looking at. And all of a sudden, she comes upon boxes and boxes and boxes of Golden Goose. And she's like, wow, my Dad wasn't a publisher. What is all this stuff? I'm talking about a voluminous amount of material. Buried in one of these files, she finds this letter.
NEARY: Those who have seen the letter say it looks like the original manuscript of "On the Road." Jerry Cimino is one of the few who has actually laid eyes on it.
CIMINO: It's just a sight to behold. It's a stunning thing to look at. For someone like - for a geek like me, this is a really big deal.
NEARY: The Joan Anderson letter will be auctioned on December 17 as part of the Golden Goose collection of papers, which includes a number of other well-known writers. Lynn Neary, NPR News, Washington.
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