STEVE INSKEEP, HOST:
Let's look at another battle - one that is heating up in the energy sector. Heating up - you'll see what I did there. The cost of solar energy is plummeting - used to be pricey. But it can now be made for about the same money as the electricity generated at big power plants. Not great news if you own a big power plant and don't want the competition. This new reality has intensified a battle between mainline electric utility companies and newer solar firms. NPR's Peter Overby reports the rivalry looks more like hardball politics than marketplace economics.
PETER OVERBY, BYLINE: The way rooftop solar typically works - the homeowner leases rooftop panels from a company that owns and installs them. That can be expensive, but the homeowners save some money by drawing less power from the utility company's electric plants and even by selling some solar power back up the line to the utility. Utilities say rooftop solar users need to pay their fair share to maintain the wire grid the electricity travels on. David Owens is vice president of the Edison Electric Institute - the trade association of investor-owned electric utilities.
DAVID OWENS: We want to preserve the choice that customers have. If they want to put on rooftop solar, that is their right. And we think it's a great technology. What we are arguing for is fairness in paying for the grid.
OVERBY: The rooftop solar companies say the utilities just want to drive them out of business. Bryan Miller is vice president of the company SunRun, and he's co-chair of a trade group, The Alliance for Solar Choice.
REPRESENTATIVE GEORGE MILLER: It's a state-by-state battle where utilities are trying to stop competition. They're monopolies. Monopolies don't like competition. And that's what these fights are about.
OVERBY: Driving the competition are solar power and other new technologies that reduce the demand to generate more electricity. Gary Radloff is an analyst with the Wisconsin Energy Institute at the University of Wisconsin, Madison.
GARY RADLOFF: All of those things decrease an electric utility's traditional revenue pathway. Basically, the electric utility business model, which we've had for, you know, over a hundred years, is starting to become obsolete.
OVERBY: So that's what the fights are about, and they can get mean, like political campaigns. Take Arizona, the nation's top state for solar energy according to the advocacy group Environment America. What seems like a never-ending battle has gone on between the rooftop solar industry and the state's biggest utility, Arizona Public Service or APS.
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BARRY GOLDWATER JR.: APS is trying to kill energy choice and pull the plug on rooftop solar.
OVERBY: That is Barry Goldwater Jr., son of the Arizona political icon. He was in a radio ad last year leading a group backed by the rooftop solar companies. And here's the counterattack from a national group funded in part by APS.
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UNIDENTIFIED WOMAN: They're even pretending to be conservative, trotting out former California Congressman Barry Goldwater Jr. to push their agenda.
OVERBY: But just recently, APS embraced a new approach.
MARC ROMITO: We are excited about rooftop solar.
OVERBY: Marc Romito is the company's manager of renewable energies. APS proposes to get into rooftop solar itself. It wouldn't lease the systems to homeowners the way the rooftop solar companies do. That means no long-term lease for a homeowner to sign, but also no electricity flowing into the house from the rooftop panels. All the electricity would go under the grid, and APS would credit the homeowners $30 a month for 20 years. Romito acknowledges that the savings might not match the other companies' rooftop solar systems.
ROMITO: Our aim - our goal with the $30 credit is to have a very simple, very straightforward transaction with customers. You may not save as much as you would in another avenue, but you know what you're going to be getting from the APS program.
OVERBY: Of course, this isn't quite an olive branch to the rooftop solar companies. APS would hire only firms headquartered in Arizona to install its home systems. Its biggest adversaries, like SunRun, would be frozen out. Arizona regulators have yet to approve the APS proposal. Judy Chang is an economist with the Brattle Group, a consulting firm that advises both utilities and the solar industry.
JUDY CHANG: Solar is here to stay, and utilities have to cope with that. Personally, I think they should cope with it by embracing it because you can only fight it so far.
OVERBY: Just how far that is is being decided by state regulators around the country. Peter Overby, NPR News, Washington.
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